iron

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English[edit]

A pot of melted raw iron.
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Etymology[edit]

The position of the element iron in the periodic table, and its structure.

From Middle English iren, a rhotacism of Old English īsern, īsærn, īren, īsen, from Proto-Germanic *īsarną (compare Dutch ijzer, West Frisian izer, German Eisen, Danish jern), from Gaulish īsarno-, from Proto-Celtic *īsarno- (compare Welsh haearn, Irish iarann), a derivation from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood) (compare Hittite 𒌍𒄩𒅈 (ešḫar), Tocharian A ysār, Latvian asinis, Ancient Greek ἔαρ (éar), Old Armenian արիւն (ariwn), Sanskrit असृज् (asṛj)).[1][2] The sense development runs from 'bloody' to 'blood red' to 'ruddy metal'.

An electric clothes iron.

Pronunciation[edit]

Chemical element
Fe Previous: manganese (Mn)
Next: cobalt (Co)

Metathesized or syncopated from original IPA(key): /ˈaɪɹən/.

Noun[edit]

iron (countable and uncountable, plural irons)

  1. (uncountable) A common, inexpensive metal, often black in color, that rusts, is attracted by magnets, and is used in making steel.
    • 2013 May-June, Kevin Heng, “Why Does Nature Form Exoplanets Easily?”, American Scientist, volume 101, number 3, page 184: 
      In the past two years, NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has located nearly 3,000 exoplanet candidates ranging from sub-Earth-sized minions to gas giants that dwarf our own Jupiter. Their densities range from that of styrofoam to iron.
  2. (uncountable, physics, chemistry, metallurgy) A metallic chemical element having atomic number 26 and symbol Fe.
  3. (uncountable, countable, metallurgy) Any material, not a steel, predominantly made of elemental iron.
    wrought iron, ductile iron, cast iron, pig iron, gray iron
  4. (countable) A tool or appliance made of metal, which is heated and then used to transfer heat to something else; most often a thick piece of metal fitted with a handle and having a flat, roughly triangular bottom, which is heated and used to press wrinkles from clothing, and now usually containing an electrical heating apparatus.
  5. (usually plural, irons) Shackles.
  6. (slang) A handgun.
  7. (uncountable) A dark shade of the colour/color silver.
  8. (Cockney rhyming slang, shortened from iron hoof, rhyming with poof; countable, offensive) A male homosexual.
  9. (golf) A golf club used for middle-distance shots.
  10. (uncountable) Great strength or power.

Quotations[edit]

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Holonyms[edit]

  • (metallic chemical element): molecule (sometimes)

Coordinate terms[edit]

  • (tool for pressing clothing): mangle

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Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Donald A. Ringe, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (Oxford: Oxford, 2006), 296.
  2. ^ J.P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, s.v. "blood" (London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999).

Adjective[edit]

iron (comparative more iron, superlative most iron)

  1. (not comparable) Made of the metal iron.
  2. (figuratively) Strong (as of will), inflexible.
    She had an iron will.
    He held on with an iron grip.
    an iron constitution

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Verb[edit]

iron (third-person singular simple present irons, present participle ironing, simple past and past participle ironed)

  1. (transitive) To pass an iron over (clothing or some other item made of cloth) in order to remove creases.
  2. (transitive, archaic) To shackle with irons; to fetter or handcuff.
    • Sir Walter Scott
      Ironed like a malefactor.
  3. (transitive) To furnish or arm with iron.
    to iron a wagon

Synonyms[edit]

  • (to pass an iron over): press

Coordinate terms[edit]

  • (to pass an iron over): mangle

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Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

iron

  1. rōmaji reading of いろん