ἔχω

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: έχω and ϝέχω

Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Hellenic *hékʰō, from Proto-Indo-European *séǵʰeti, from Proto-Indo-European *seǵʰ-.

Compare Mycenaean Greek 𐀃𐀏 (o-ka) and 𐀁𐀐 (e-ke).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Verb[edit]

ἔχω (ékhō)

  1. I have, possess, contain, own
    1. I keep, have charge of
    2. (with accusative of place) I inhabit
    3. (of place) I keep (to the left/right) of
    4. I possess mentally, understand
    5. I involve, admit of
  2. I hold
    1. I hold fast, grip
    2. (of arms and clothes) I bear, wear
    3. (of a woman) I am pregnant
    4. I hold a course, guide, drive, steer
    5. I hold back, stay, check
  3. (with infinitive) I have means to do, I am able
    1. I have to, must
    2. (followed by a dependent clause) I know
  4. (impersonal) there is
  5. (intransitive) I hold myself, keep balanced
    1. I hold fast
    2. (with genitive) I keep from
    3. I am
    4. (with adverbs of manner) I am, I happen
    5. (with εὖ and genitive of manner) I am well off for something; I abound in it
    6. (post-Homeric, with aorist participle) I keep (doing something)
  6. (middle) I hold myself fast, cling closely to
    1. I come next to, follow closely, neighbour
    2. I depend
      1. I am connected with by etymology
    3. I pertain to
    4. I bear or hold for myself
    5. I maintain myself, stand my ground
      1. (with accusative) I repel from myself
    6. I keep myself back, abstain from, refrain from

Usage notes[edit]

The future ἕξω (héxō) is imperfective (meaning that it has the same aspect as the imperfect tense), with continuative aspect ("I will have") whereas σχήσω (skhḗsō) is perfective (meaning that it has the same aspect as the aorist), with an inchoative aspect ("I will get"). Aorist forms of stative verbs often have an inchoative meaning.[1]

Inflection[edit]

Homer uses the poetic aorist ἔσχεθον rather than ἔσχον about half the time, and likewise in ἀνέχω, κατέχω, ὑπέχω, and ὑπερέχω.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Greek: έχω (écho)
  • Mariupol Greek: э́ху (éxu)

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920), “Part IV: Syntax”, in A Greek grammar for colleges, Cambridge: American Book Company, § 1924