総統

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
そう
Grade: 5
とう
Grade: 5
kan’on on’yomi
Alternative spelling
總統 (kyūjitai)
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Etymology[edit]

Ultimate derivation unclear. May be a coinage in Japan from Middle Chinese-derived elements, as a compound of (, all, everything) +‎ (, rule, govern).

First cited in Japanese to a text from 1869.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(そう)(とう) (sōtō

  1. [from 1869] (archaic) general control over something; a person or official position with such control
  2. [from roughly 1912] (government, politics, uncommon, China) president
  3. [from 1930s?] (government, politics) generalissimo (such as Benito Mussolini of Italy), caudillo (such as Francisco Franco of Spain)
  4. [from 1934] (historical) the Führer - Adolf Hitler as the chancellor of Nazi Germany

Usage notes[edit]

The term is usually used to describe dictatorial or fascist politicians who are not monarchs. 大統領(だいとうりょう) (daitōryō) is used instead on elected politicians, even if they are nominally elected. An exception is the president of the Republic of China, where the term 総統 is an orthographic borrowing from Chinese 總統.

See also[edit]

Verb[edit]

(そう)(とう)する (sōtō surusuru (stem (そう)(とう) (sōtō shi), past (そう)(とう)した (sōtō shita))

  1. [from 1869] (archaic) to have or exercise general control over something
    Synonym: 統べ括る (subekukuru)

Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 総統”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, →ISBN
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN