십삼

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Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Sino-Korean word from 十三

Pronunciation[edit]

Revised Romanization? sipsam
Revised Romanization (translit.)? sibsam
McCune–Reischauer? sipsam
Yale Romanization? sipqsam

Numeral[edit]

십삼 (sipsam) (hanja 十三)

  1. (Sino-Korean numeral) thirteen
    Synonyms: 열셋 (yeolset, thirteen, native nominal numeral), 열세 (yeolse, thirteen, native determiner numeral)

Usage notes[edit]

In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.

The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.

Native classifiers take native numerals.

Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.

  • 종이 () (jong-i du jang, two sheets of paper, native numeral)
  • () (i bun, two minutes, Sino-Korean numeral)
  • 서른/삼십 () (seoreun/samsip myeong, thirty people, both sets possible)

Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.

For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.

  • (se ban, three school classes, native numeral)
  • (sam ban, Class Number Three, Sino-Korean numeral)

When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.

  • 하나 주세요 (hanaman deo juseyo, Could you give me just one more, please, native numeral)
  • 더하기 ? (Il deohagi ireun?, What's one plus one?, Sino-Korean numeral)

While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.