Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan:
    *sring ("live, bear") (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman:
      *s-riŋ ~ *s-raŋ ("live, alive, green, raw") (Benedict, 1972) - later modified to *śriŋ, explaining the ‑a‑ in Written Burmese hraŋ as being "conditioned by the initial cluster".
      *s-riŋ ~ *s-rɑŋ ("live, bear, be born, fresh (e.g. greens)"), *śriŋ ("live, alive, green, raw") (Chou, 1972)
      *s-ring(*A) ("live, bear") (Coblin, 1986)
      *s-riŋ, *s-raŋ ("live") (Weidert, 1987)
      *śriN ("live") (Michailovsky, 1991)
      *s-riŋ ⪤ *s-r(y)aŋ ("live, alive, green, raw, give birth") (Matisoff, STEDT)

A well-attested root, (in particular) with its parallel allofams reflected in Chinese in different forms, including the original vocalism variation *‑a‑ ⪤ *‑i‑ and/or forms lacking medial *r. Schuessler (2007) argued that this was originally a ST terminative final * derivation from PST *sri (to be, exist), hence literally "come into existence → give birth → live". The original etymon perhaps survives in Chinese as (Old Chinese /*r̥ˁijʔ/, "body, limbs").

The allofam *siŋ appears identical in form to PST *siŋ ~ sik (tree); the two are perhaps related (Schuessler, 2007). The Chinese reflex of the latter () is homophonic with ("new").


  1. to live
  2. alive
  3. green
  4. raw
  5. to give birth


  • Old Chinese:
    /*sreŋ, sreŋ-s/ ("to live; to be born; to bear"), /*ɴ-sreŋ/ ("fresh, raw") (B-S); /*sl̥eːŋ, sreŋs/ (ZS)
    (in the oracle bone script) 生-oracle.svg
    /*sreŋ/ (B-S; unlisted, theoretical); /*sreŋ/ (ZS) ("a (live) sacrificial animal")
    /*ɴ-sˁ‹r›eŋ/ (B-S); /*sl̥eːŋ/ (ZS) ("blue-green")

       Vietnamese:  xanh (blue, green)

    /*t͡sʰˁaŋ/ (B-S); /*sʰaːŋ/ (ZS) ("deep blue-green") (< *k-saŋ? (Schuessler, 2007))
    /*seŋ-s/ (B-S); /*sleŋs/ (ZS) ("nature (of man)")
    /*seŋ-s/ (B-S); /*sleŋs/ (ZS) ("surname")
    /*ʔsleŋ/ (ZS) ("luxuriant")
    and perhaps /*dzeŋ/ (B-S); /*zleŋ/ (ZS) ("emotion, nature")
    • Middle Chinese: /ʃɣæŋ, ʃɣæŋH/, /ʃɣæŋ/, /t͡sʰeŋ/, /t͡sʰɑŋ/, , /siᴇŋH/, /t͡siᴇŋ/, /d͡ziᴇŋ/

         Japanese:   (せい, sei)
            Korean:   (saeng) (, saeng)
            Vietnamese:  sinh, sanh

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: , (shēng, /ʂɤŋ⁵⁵/), (qīng, /t͡ɕʰiŋ⁵⁵/), (cāng, /t͡sʰɑŋ⁵⁵/), , (xìng, /ɕiŋ⁵¹/), (jīng, /t͡ɕiŋ⁵⁵/), (qíng, /t͡ɕʰiŋ³⁵/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: གསིང་མ (gsing ma, pastureland, meadow with green grass)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ရှင် (hrang, to live; alive)

See also[edit]