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- 1 English
- 2 Czech
- 3 Latin
- (archaic) Cæsar
- (rhotic) IPA(key): /ˈsiːzəɹ/
- (non-rhotic) IPA(key): /ˈsiːzə/
- (Latinate) IPA(key): /ˈkaisaɹ/
- Homophone: seizer
- An ancient Roman family name, notably that of Gaius Iulius Caesar.
- (figuratively) The government; society; earthly powers.
- 1611, The Holy Bible, […] (King James Version), imprinted at London: By Robert Barker, […], OCLC 964384981, Matthew 22:21::
- Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God's.
- 1861, David Page, The past and present life of the globe, page 9:
- let it be clearly understood that we are dealing with Life solely in its geological aspects. We appeal unto Caesar; let us be judged by Caesar's laws.
- 1957, Awake, volume 38, number 14, page 6:
- Caesar may discriminate unjustly against certain races. Christians are not to take issue with Caesar's laws on such matters and flout them, but should submit.
- 2003, Carol Kammen, On Doing Local History, page 76:
- It is the story of churches that split apart over this issue and of ministers finding ways to justify the return of slaves because they were under the aegis of the laws of Caesar, not the laws of God.
- 2012, Christopher Buckley, God Is My Broker:
- But I know that Caesar's laws have been broken, and someone has to pay. I'm your man. These are good monks. If they committed any crime, it was to believe in me.
Terms derived from Caesar
ancient Roman family name
Caesar (plural Caesars)
- A title of Roman emperors.
- An absolute ruler; an autocrat.
- Abbreviation of Caesar salad.
- (Canada) Abbreviation of Bloody Caesar. (cocktail)
- (medicine, colloquial) Short for Caesarean section.
a title of Roman emperors
- Caesar (ancient Roman family name)
Unknown. Etymology was subject to many interpretations in antiquity, all of which remain doubtful. Among these are:
- From the Punic word for “elephant” 𐤂𐤀𐤄𐤔𐤀𐤉 (caesai). This etymology was endorsed by Julius Caesar himself, thereby following the claims of his family that they inherited the cognomen from an ancestor, who had received the name after killing an elephant, possibly during the first Punic war.
- From the phrase a caesiis oculis ("because of the blue eyes"): Caesar's eyes were black, but since the despotic dictator Sulla had had blue eyes, this interpretation might have been created as part of the anti-Caesarian propaganda in order to present Caesar as a tyrant.
- From the phrase a caesariē ("because of the hair"): Since Caesar was balding, this interpretation might have been part of the anti-Caesarian mockery.
- From the phrase a caeso matris utero ("born by Caesarean section"): In theory this might go back to an unknown Julian ancestor who was born in this way. On the other hand, it could also have been part of the anti-Caesarian propaganda.
- From the verb caedō (“to cut”), in the argument of the Julians for receiving a sodality of the Lupercalia. The praenomen Kaeso (or Caeso) was best known from the Quinctii and the Fabii, possibly derived from their ritual duty of striking with the goat-skin at the luperci Quinctiales and the luperci Fabiani.
- → Ancient Greek: Καῖσαρ (Kaîsar) (see there for further descendants)
- → Arabic: قَيْصَر (qayṣar), قَيَاصِرَة pl (qayāṣira)
- → Aramaic:
- → English: Caesar
- → French: César
- → Italian: Cesare
- → Middle Persian: 𐭪𐭩𐭮𐭫𐭩 (kēsar)
- → Old Portuguese: Cesar
- → Old Occitan: [Term?]:
- → Parthian: 𐭊𐭉𐭎𐭓 (kēsar)
- → Germanic: *kaisaraz (see there for further descendants)
- → Slavic: *cěsarjь (see there for further descendants)
- → Romanian: Cezar
- → Russian: Це́зарь (Cézarʹ)
- → Sogdian: [script needed] (kysr), ܩܝܣܪ (kēsar)
- → Spanish: César
- Caesar in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
- Caesar in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
- Caesar in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700, pre-publication website, 2005-2016