virulent

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE word
*wisós

From Middle English virulent (leaking or seeping pus, purulent; (of putrefaction) extremely severe (sense uncertain)) [and other forms],[1] borrowed from Latin vīrulentus (poisonous), from vīrus (poison; venom; slime, slimy liquid; stinking smell; nasty taste)[2] (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *wisós (poison; slime; fluidity)) + -ulentus (suffix meaning ‘abounding in, full of’, forming adjectives).

Sense 4 (“of a pathogen: replicating within its host cell, then immediately causing it to undergo lysis”) is derived from French virulent, which was first used in this sense by the French biologist François Jacob (1920–2013) and his co-authors in a 1953 article.[2][3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

virulent (comparative more virulent, superlative most virulent)

  1. Of animals, plants, or substances: extremely venomous or poisonous.
    Antonyms: harmless, nonvirulent
  2. (figuratively) Extremely hostile or malicious; intensely acrimonious.
    The politicians were virulent in their hatred of the president.
    • c. 1515–1516, published 1568, John Skelton, Againſt venemous tongues enpoyſoned with ſclaunder and falſe detractions &c.:
      More venemous and much more virulent / Then any poyſoned tode, or any ſerpent.
    • 1963, Margery Allingham, “The Well House”, in The China Governess: A Mystery, London: Chatto & Windus, OCLC 483591931, page 105:
      It was a casual sneer, obviously one of a long line. There was hatred behind it, but of a quiet, chronic type, nothing new or unduly virulent, and he was taken aback by the flicker of amazed incredulity that passed over the younger man's ravaged face.
  3. (medicine) Of a disease or disease-causing agent: malignant, able to cause damage to the host.
    Antonyms: benign, nonvirulent
  4. (microbiology) Of a pathogen: replicating within its host cell, then immediately causing it to undergo lysis. [from 1953]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ vīrulent, adj.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. 2.0 2.1 virulent, adj.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1917; “virulent, adj.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  3. ^ F[rançois] Jacob; A[ndré Michel] Lwoff; A. Siminovich; É[lie] Wollman (January 1953), “Définition de Quelques Termes Relatifs a la Lysogénie [Definition of Some Terms Relating to Lysogeny]”, in Annales de l’Institut Pasteur, volume 84, issue 1, Paris: Masson et Cie, [], OCLC 682016793, page 223: “Phage virulent. – Phage incapable de donner des systèmes lysogénes.”

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrulentus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

virulent (feminine virulenta, masculine plural virulents, feminine plural virulentes)

  1. virulent

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adjective[edit]

virulent (plural and definite singular attributive virulente)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Further reading[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Late Latin virulentus. The second sense is probably a semantic loan from English.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

virulent (feminine singular virulente, masculine plural virulents, feminine plural virulentes)

  1. (medicine) virulent
  2. virulent (hostile)

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin virulentus.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /viʁuˈlɛnt/
  • Hyphenation: vi‧ru‧lent
  • (file)

Adjective[edit]

virulent (not comparable)

  1. (medicine) virulent

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French virulent, from Latin virulentus.

Adjective[edit]

virulent m or n (feminine singular virulentă, masculine plural virulenți, feminine and neuter plural virulente)

  1. virulent

Declension[edit]