حرف

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See also: خرف‎, خرق‎, حرق, and خ ر ق

Arabic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Verb I: IPA(key): /ħa.ra.fa/
  • Verb II: IPA(key): /ˈħarrafa/, [ˈħɑrrɑfɑ]
  • Noun 1, 2: IPA(key): /ħarf/,
    (file)
  • Noun 3: IPA(key): /ħurf/

Etymology 1[edit]

From the root ح ر ف(ḥ-r-f). Cognate to Aramaic חָרַף(ḥarap, to scrape, sharpen, to grind), Classical Syriac ܚܪܰܦ(ḥrap̄, to blend, to scrape together), Classical Syriac ܚܰܪܦܐ(ḥarp̄a, blade, sword), Ge'ez ሐረፈ (ḥäräfä, to crush, to grind, to tear off the top).

Verb[edit]

حَرَفَ (ḥarafa) I, non-past يَحْرِفُ‎‎ (yaḥrifu)

  1. to turn to the opposite side
  2. to trade, to do business
  3. to trim, to snip
Conjugation[edit]

Verb[edit]

حَرَّفَ (ḥarrafa) II, non-past يُحَرِّفُ‎‎ (yuḥarrifu)

  1. to slant, to incline
  2. to bend down, up, or back, to turn down, up, or back
  3. to deflect
  4. to distort, to corrupt, to falsify, to misconstrue, to pervert, to twist
    • فَمَا جَاءُوا بِهِ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ فَهُوَ حَقٌّ وَلَكِنَّهُمْ يُحَرِّفُونَ وَيَزِيدُونَ
      famā jāʾū bihi ʿalā wajhihi fahuwa ḥaqqun walakinnahum yuḥarrifūna wayazīdūna
      Whatever they came with is right, as it is – however they distort and augment.
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From the root ح ر ف(ḥ-r-f). The meaning “word” is a semantic loan from Medieval Latin terminus, spawned in the environment of philosophy text translation (see Praetorius 1909).

Noun[edit]

حَرْف (ḥarfm (plural حُرُوف(ḥurūf) or أَحْرُف(ʾaḥruf))

  1. verbal noun of حَرَفَ (ḥarafa) (form I)
  2. letter (of the alphabet), piece of type
    حَرْفًا بِحَرْفٍ‎ ― ḥarfan bi-ḥarfinword for word
  3. consonant
  4. (grammar) particle
  5. (obsolete) word
Declension[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From the root ح ر ف(ḥ-r-f).

Noun[edit]

حَرْف (ḥarfm (plural حِرَف (ḥiraf))

  1. cutting edge, sharp edge
  2. border, brink, edge, rim
Declension[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Noun[edit]

حِرَف (ḥirafpl

  1. plural of حَرْف (ḥarf)
  2. plural of حِرْفَة(ḥirfa)

Etymology 5[edit]

Arabic Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ar

Derived from Classical Syriac ܚܘܪܦܐ(ḥurpā, undesirable produce), from Aramaic חפירא(ḥupūrā, undesirable produce), ultimately Akkadian 𒄷𒌨𒁍 (ḫurpu, crop collected early, unripe produce), hence the meaning of bitter or unpleasant tasting plants; for more see خ ر ف(ḵ-r-f).

Noun[edit]

حُرْف (ḥurfm

  1. cress (Lepidium sativum, a garden vegetable)
  2. bitter-cress (Cardamine, some of which are eatable, some of medicinal use)
  3. water-cress (Nasturtium officinale, eatable and of medicinal use)
    • 1025, ابن سينا (Avicenna), القانون في الطب‎ [Canon Medicinae], Rome: Stamperia Orientale Medicea, published 1593, Liber 2, page 173:
      قال ديسقويدس أجود ما رأينا من شجرة الحرف ما يكون بأرض بابل، وقوته شبيهة بقوة الخردل وبزر الفجل، وقيل الخردل وبزر الجرجير المجتمعين، وورقه ينقص في أفعاله عنه لرطوبته فإذا يبس قارب مشاكلته وكاد يلحقه‏‏. […] الأفعال والخواص‏:‏ مسخن محلل منضج مع تليين ينشف قيح الجرب‏.‏
      Dioscurides said that the best what we have seen of the water-cress is the one on the earth of Babel, and its power is similar to that of the mustard and the seeds of the radish, and, it is said, mustard and rocket seeds can be blended with it, but its leaves fall behind the whole of the plant in their effects by reason of their moisture, but when dried, they are similar to it and almost catch up with it. […] Its properties: It is heatening, laxative, maturative with some laxivity and absorbs the pus in the scab.
Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • ḥrp”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • Freytag, Georg (1830), “حرف”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 1, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, pages 367–368
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860), “حرف”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc (in French), volume 1, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, pages 410–411
  • Praetorius, Franz (1909), “Ḥarfun = Terminus”, in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft[1], volume 63, pages 504–505

Persian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic حَرْف(ḥarf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

حرف (harf) (plural حرف‌ها(harf-hâ) or حروف(horuf))

  1. speech
  2. talk
  3. letter
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic حِرَف(ḥiraf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

حرف (heraf)

  1. (archaic) plural of حرفه