短い

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
みじか
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
短かい (less common, possibly proscribed)

⟨mi1zikasi⟩/mizikasi//mid͡ʑikaɕi//mid͡ʑikaki//mid͡ʑikai/

From Old Japanese.[1] Cited in the Man'yōshū, dated to roughly 759 CE.[2]

Appears to be derived as a compound, but the constituent parts remain obscure. The stem form mijika is also found in compounds, and in the now-obsolete adjective forms 短やか (mijikayaka) and 短らか (mijikaraka), indicating that the ‑ka in mijika is not the adjectivizing suffix (‑ka) (as in 静か shizuka), and is instead part of the root term.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "短い"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 短く かく
じか
[mìjíꜜkàkù]
[mìjíkáꜜkù]
Terminal (終止形) 短い じか [mìjíkáꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 短い じか [mìjíkáꜜì]
Key constructions
Informal negative 短くない かくない
じかくない
[mìjíꜜkàkùnàì]
[mìjíkáꜜkùnàì]
Informal past 短かった かかった
じかかった
[mìjíꜜkàkàttà]
[mìjíkáꜜkàttà]
Informal negative past 短くなかった かくなかった
じかくなかった
[mìjíꜜkàkùnàkàttà]
[mìjíkáꜜkùnàkàttà]
Formal 短いです じかいです [mìjíkáꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 短くて かくて
じかくて
[mìjíꜜkàkùtè]
[mìjíkáꜜkùtè]
Conditional 短ければ かければ
じかければ
[mìjíꜜkàkèrèbà]
[mìjíkáꜜkèrèbà]

Adjective[edit]

(みじか) (mijikai-i (adverbial (みじか) (mijikaku))

  1. short, brief
    Synonym: (Kagoshima) みひけ (mihike)
  2. [from 759] short, brief (in time)
  3. [from 974] short (in space, from one point to another)
  4. [date uncertain] short, brief (in length, such as a text or speech)
  5. [mid 900s–late 1500s] (archaic) short (in height)
    Mostly superseded in modern usage by 低い (hikui, short, in height).
  6. [from 858] common, not part of the aristocracy
  7. [from 905] short on intelligence or maturity: dimwitted, dull; shallow, superficial
    Synonyms: 鈍い (nibui, dim, dull), 浅薄 (senpaku, shallow, superficial)
  8. [from early 900s] short of attention: fickle, shallow-hearted, flighty
    Synonyms: 薄情 (hakujō, shallow-hearted, fickle, unfeeling), 変わりやすい (kawariyasui, fickle, changeable, unsettled)
  9. [from early 1600s] short-tempered, impatient, impetuous
    Synonyms: せっかち (sekkachi, hasty, impetuous), 短気 (tanki, quick-tempered, impatient)
Inflection[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
みじか > みちか
Grade: 3
Irregular

Shift from standard Japanese mijikai.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(みちか) (michikai-i (adverbial (みちか) (michikaku))

  1. (Ibaraki dialect) short, brief

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3744), text available online here
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Further reading[edit]