바닥

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Korean[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?badak
Revised Romanization (translit.)?badag
McCune–Reischauer?padak
Yale Romanization?patak
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: 닥의 / 닥에 / 닥까지

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch only on the first syllable, and lowers the pitch of subsequent suffixes.

Etymology 1[edit]

First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as Middle Korean 바다ᇰ〮 (Yale: pàtáng). In the Early Modern era, the form was supplanted by modern 바닥 (badak), which may originally have been dialectal; Korean dialects often variably have coda /k~ŋ~j~h/, probably from ancestral */-k/.

바다 (bada, sea, ocean) may originally have been a semantic extension of this word.[1] Beyond Koreanic, probably related to Manchu ᡶ‍ᠠᡨᠠᠨ (f‍atan, sole of the foot),[2] which is quite possibly a Korean borrowing into Jurchen or Manchu given the apparent lack of clear Tungusic cognates.

Noun[edit]

바닥 (badak)

  1. floor; bottom; a flat and usually low surface of a space or object
    신발 바닥sinbal badakbottom of the shoes, sole of the shoes
    바닥hyeotbadaksurface of the tongue
    바닥 떨어지다chaeg-i badag-e tteoreojidafor the book to fall to the floor
  2. (figuratively) rock bottom
  3. (colloquial) area, region
    서울 바닥Seoul badakSeoul; the area of Seoul
  4. (uncommon) the weave of fabric
Derived terms[edit]

(idioms)

  • 바닥을 긁다 (badageul geukda, to be stuck in poverty or difficulty, literally to scratch the bottom)
  • 바닥을 기다 (badageul gida, to be terrible (of scores, grades, etc.), literally to crawl the bottom)
  • 바닥이 드러나다 (badagi deureonada, to be depleted, literally for the bottom to be revealed)
  • 바닥을 보다 (badageul boda, to put at end to things, literally to see the bottom)
  • 바닥을 짚다 (badageul jipda, to mine a specific place for ore, literally to examine the bottom)
  • 바닥을 치다 (badageul chida, to hit rock bottom, literally to strike the bottom)
  • 바닥을 비우다 (badageul biuda, to deplete, literally to empty the bottom)

(compounds)

Counter[edit]

바닥 (badak)

  1. (southeastern Gyeongsang) page of paper
    바닥chaek han badaka page of a book
    Synonyms: (jjok), 페이지 (peiji)

Etymology 2[edit]

See the main entry at 바다 (bada). Probably the most conservative form of this word.

Noun[edit]

바닥 (badak)

  1. (southern Gyeongsang, southern Jeolla dialect) Dialectal form of 바다 (bada, sea; ocean).
Synonyms[edit]
Historical and regional synonyms of 바다 (bada, sea)
view map; edit data
GroupRegionLocationWords
Standardised formsSouth Korean Standard Language바다 (bada)
North Korean Cultured Language바다 (bada)
Historical formsOld Korean海等 (*PAtol)
Middle Korean바닿〮 (pàtáh), 바ᄅᆞᆯ〮 (pàlól)
Early Modern Seoul Korean바다 (bada), 바닿 (bada)
Central KoreanGyeonggiModern colloquial Seoul바다 (bada)
Kaesong바다 (bada)
Changpung바다 (bada)
Yeoncheon바다 (bada)
Yongin바대 (badae)
YeongseoKosan바다 (bada)
YeongdongGangneung바다 (bàdà)
Wonsan바다 (bada)
Kumya바다 (bada)
Munchon바다 (bada)
Anbyeon바다 (bada)
Yangyang바다 (bada)
Samcheok바다 (bádà)
North ChungcheongCheongju바다 (bada)
Chungju바다 (bada)
Danyang바다 (bada)
Boeun바다 (bada)
Yeongdong바다 (bada)
South ChungcheongCheonan바다 (bada)
Hongseong바다 (bada)
Gongju바다 (bada)
Seocheon바다 (bada)
Nonsan바다 (bada), 바대 (badae)
South HwanghaeHaeju바다 (bada)
Ongjin바다 (bada)
Yonan바다 (bada)
Taetan바다 (bada)
Chaeryong바다 (bada)
Changyon바다 (bada)
Unnyul바다 (bada)
North HwanghaeHwangju바다 (bada)
Sohung바다 (bada)
Kumchon바다 (bada)
Singye바다 (bada)
Suan바다 (bada)
Yonsan바다 (bada)
Southeastern Korean
(Gyeongsang)
North GyeongsangDaegu바다 (bádà)
Uljin바다 (bádà), 바닥 (bádàk)
Yecheon바다 (bádà)
Andong바다 (bádà)
Uiseong바다 (bádà)
Cheongsong바다 (bádà)
Yeongdeok바다 (bádà), 바닥 (bádàk)
Gimcheon바다 (bádà)
Pohang바다 (bádà)
Yeongcheon바다 (bádà)
Goryeong바다 (bádà)
South GyeongsangBusan바다 (bádà), 바당 (bádàng)
Ulsan바다 (bádà)
Changwon바다 (bádà), 바당 (bádàng)
Geochang바다 (bádà), 바닥 (bádàk)
Hapcheon바다 (bádà)
Changnyeong바대 (bádè), 바당 (bádàng)
Hamyang바다 (bádà)
Hadong바닥 (bádàk)
Jinju바다 (bádà), 바당 (bádàng), 바닥 (bádàk)
Haman바닥 (bádàk)
Gimhae바다 (bádà)
Yangsan바다 (bádà)
Sacheon바닥 (bádàk)
Goseong바닥 (bádàk)
Namhae바다 (bádà), 바닥 (bádàk)
Tongyeong바다 (bádà), 바당 (bádàng), 바닥 (bádàk)
Geoje바당 (bádàng), 바닥 (bádàk)
Southwestern Korean
(Jeolla)
North JeollaJeonju바대 (badae)
Jinan바대 (badae)
Muju바대 (badae)
Gimje바대 (badae)
Jeongeup바대 (badae)
Imsil바대 (badae)
Jangsu바대 (badae)
Sunchang바대 (badae)
Namwon바대 (badae)
South JeollaGwangju바다 (bada)
Yeonggwang바대 (bade)
Jangseong바대 (bade)
Damyang바대 (bade)
Gokseong바대 (bade)
Gurye바대 (badae)
Hampyeong바대 (bade)
Sinan바닥 (badak)
Mokpo바닥 (badak)
Naju바대 (bade), 바다 (bada)
Suncheon바다 (bada)
Gwangyang바대 (badae)
Yeongam바대 (bade)
Jindo바닥 (badak)
Haenam바대 (bade), 바닥 (badak)
Gangjin바대 (bade)
Wando바닥 (badak), 바탕 (batang) (less common)
Jangheung바대 (bade)
Boseong바대 (badae)
Goheung바닥 (badak)
Yeosu바닥 (badak), 바당 (badang)
Northwestern Korean
(Pyongan)
South PyonganPyongyang바다 (bada)
North PyonganPakchon바다 (bada)
Nyongbyon바다 (bada)
Kusong바다 (bada)
Huichon바다 (bada)
Kanggye바다 (bada)
Chasong바다 (bada)
Northeastern Korean
(Hamgyong)
South HamgyongHamhung바다 (bàdá)
Chongpyong바다 (bàdá)
Yonggwang바다 (bàdá)
Sinhung바다 (bàdá)
Hongwon바다 (bàdá)
Pukchong바다 (bàdá)
Tanchon바당 (bàdáng)
North HamgyongChongjin바다 (bàdá)
Kimchaek바다 (bàdá)
Kilju바당 (bàdáng)
Myongchon바다 (bàdá)
Kyongsong바다 (bàdá)
Puryong바다 (bàdá)
Musan바당 (bàdáng)
Hyesan바다 (bàdá)
Kapsan바다 (bàdá)
Pungso바다 (bàdá)
Kimhyongjik바다 (bàdá)
Yukjin KoreanYukjinKyonghung바다 (bàdá)
Hoeryong바당 (bàdáng)
Onsong바다 (bàdá)
Kyongwon바당 (bàdáng)
DiasporaHunchun바다 (bàdá)
JejuJeju City바당 (badang), 와당 (wadang)
Daejeong바당 (badang), 와당 (wadang), 바릇 (bareut)
Gujwa바당 (badang), 와당 (wadang)
Seogwipo바당 (badang), 와당 (wadang), 바릇 (bareut)
Note: Jeolla and Gyeongsang speakers may prefer to use words for 'beach' or 'seashore' in contexts where Seoul speakers would use 바다.
This table is an amalgamation of surveys of speakers mostly born before 1950 and may not reflect the language of younger speakers, which has lexically converged towards the standard Seoul dialect in both North and South Koreas.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 김영일 (2008), “한국어 어휘 비교의 재인식 [A new approach to Korean lexical comparisons]”, in Hangeul, volume 279, pages 153−176
  2. ^ Lee, Ki-Moon; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011) A History of the Korean Language, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 24