charakter

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See also: Charakter

English

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An intaglio of charakteres.

Etymology

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Directly borrowed from Ancient Greek χαρακτήρ (kharaktḗr). Doublet of character.

Noun

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charakter (plural charakteres)

  1. A glyph with no agreed semantic or phonetic value, generally formed by deforming a letter of the Greek alphabet or a simple geometric symbol via one of several predefined processes, used as part of magical texts in the Hellenistic world.
    • 2004, Angelos Chaniotis, Thomas Corsten, R. S. Stroud, Rolf Tybout, editors, Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, volume LIV, page 660:
      [] (yellow diasper; inscription in a circle enclosing magical charakteres on two lines; other letters (?) and charakteres on the rim; scorpion on the reverse; 3rd cent. A.D.; N. 660/661) []
    • 2011, György Németh, Sequences of charakteres in some circus defixiones in Latin from Hadrumetum:
      Among the roughly forty curse-tablets found, mainly by French army officers in the late nineteenth century, at Hadrumetum, is a group of texts exhibiting a common feature, namely that they contain recurring sequences of charakteres. In this form they have not been found elsewhere; moreover, the individual charakteres are also different from magic signs found elsewhere.
    • 2014, Richard Gordon, Charaktêres between Antiquity and Renaissance: Transmission and Re-invention:
      The great majority of charaktêres, like the majority of voces magicae, were never memorized – they were simply produced on one occasion. That is why there could be so many of them. We shall see this principle emphatically re-asserted in the medieval and early-modern shift from the charaktêr to the sigillum.
    • 2019, Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, page 337:
      Such hissings and poppings are not the only incomprehensible signs that the theurgists use to make contact with the divine; various sources make mention of charakteres, incomprehensible drawn figures that seem to resemble letters or images but without any clear iconic resemblance.

Czech

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Czech Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia cs

Etymology

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Inherited from Old Czech charakter, from Latin charactē̆r, from Ancient Greek χαράσσω (kharássō). Compare Polish charakter and Slovak charakter.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈxaraktɛr]
  • Audio:(file)

Noun

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charakter m inan

  1. character (moral strength)
  2. character (features)
    Synonyms: ráz, povaha

Declension

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Further reading

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  • charakter”, in Příruční slovník jazyka českého (in Czech), 1935-1957
  • charakter”, in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého (in Czech), 1960–1971, 1989
  • charakter”, in Internetová jazyková příručka (in Czech)

Kashubian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Polish charakter.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /xaˈraktɛr/
  • Rhymes: -aktɛr
  • Syllabification: cha‧rak‧ter

Noun

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charakter m inan

  1. character (nature of something or something, personality)

Further reading

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  • Stefan Ramułt (1893) “χarakter”, in Słownik języka pomorskiego czyli kaszubskiego (in Kashubian), page 52
  • Jan Trepczyk (1994) “charakter”, in Słownik polsko-kaszubski (in Kashubian), volumes 1–2
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011) “charakter”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi[3]
  • charakter”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022

Old Czech

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Etymology

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Learned borrowing from Latin charactē̆r, from Ancient Greek χαράσσω (kharássō).[1] Compare Old Slovak charakter.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): (13th CE) /ˈxaraktɛr/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /ˈxaraktɛr/

Noun

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charakter m inan

  1. character (engraved sign, mark, sign of something)

Declension

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Descendants

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  • Czech: charakter

References

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  1. ^ Rejzek, Jiří (2015) “charakter”, in Český etymologický slovník [Czech Etymological Dictionary] (in Czech), 3rd (revised and expanded) edition, Praha: LEDA, →ISBN

Old Slovak

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Etymology

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Learned borrowing from Latin charactē̆r, from Ancient Greek χαράσσω (kharássō).[1] Compare Old Czech charakter. First attested in the 17th century.

Pronunciation

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This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Noun

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charakter m inan

  1. character (sign, mark)
  2. character (personality)
  3. honor

Descendants

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References

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  1. ^ Králik, Ľubor (2016) “charakter”, in Stručný etymologický slovník slovenčiny [Concise Etymological Dictionary of Slovak] (in Slovak), Bratislava: VEDA; JÚĽŠ SAV, →ISBN
  • Majtán, Milan et al., editors (1991–2008), “charakter”, in Historický slovník slovenského jazyka [Historical Dictionary of the Slovak Language] (in Slovak), volumes 1–7 (A – Ž), Bratislava: VEDA, →OCLC

Polish

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Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Learned borrowing from Latin charactē̆r.[1][2] First attested in 1557.[3] Compare Czech charakter and Slovak charakter.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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charakter m inan (related adjective charakterowy)

  1. character, personality (complex of traits marking a person)
    Synonym: natura
    Rozwiedliśmy się ze względu na niezgodność charakterów.
    We divorced due to incompatible personalities.
  2. character, personality (strength of mind; resolution; independence; individuality; moral strength)
  3. character (complex of traits marking an object or pheonomenon)
    Synonyms: barwa, zabarwienie
    Działania na terytorium Ukrainy mają charakter wojenny.
    The activity on the territory of Ukraine has the features of war.
  4. (narratology) character (being that can act in a work of fiction)
    Synonym: postać
  5. (formal) role
    Czy wezmę udział w procesie w charakterze świadka czy pokrzywdzonego?
    Will I take part in the trial as a witness or as a victim?
  6. (obsolete) property, trait (defining characteristic of an object)
    Synonym: właściwość
  7. (obsolete) character (letter, mark, or sign)
    1. (Middle Polish) written spell or charm
  8. (Middle Polish) mark, sign
    Synonyms: piętno, ślad, znamię
  9. (Middle Polish, heraldry) banner; coat of arms
    Synonyms: chorągiew, herb
  10. (Middle Polish, now in set phrases) handwriting (manner of writing)
    Synonym: charakter pisma

Declension

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Standardly:

Regionally:

Derived terms

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nouns
prepositions

Descendants

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Trivia

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According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), charakter is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 37 times in scientific texts, 18 times in news, 48 times in essays, 7 times in fiction, and 10 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 120 times, making it the 499th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[4]

References

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  1. ^ Bańkowski, Andrzej (2000) “charakter”, in Etymologiczny słownik języka polskiego [Etymological Dictionary of the Polish Language] (in Polish)
  2. ^ Stanisław Dubisz, editor (2003), “charakter”, in Uniwersalny słownik języka polskiego [Universal dictionary of the Polish language]‎[1] (in Polish), volumes 1-4, Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN SA, →ISBN
  3. ^ Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “karakter, charakter”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  4. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990) “charakter”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language]‎[2] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków, Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 44

Further reading

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Slovak

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Slovak Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sk

Etymology

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Inherited from Old Slovak charakter, from Latin charactē̆r, from Ancient Greek χαράσσω (kharássō). Compare Czech charakter and Polish charakter.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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charakter m inan (genitive singular charakteru, nominative plural charaktery, genitive plural charakterov, declension pattern of dub)

  1. character (moral strength)
  2. character (features)

Declension

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Synonyms

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Further reading

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  • charakter”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024