focal

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Learned borrowing from New Latin focālis; synchronically analyzable as focus +‎ -al.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

focal (not comparable)

  1. Belonging to, concerning, or located at a focus.
    Antonyms: nonfocal, widespread
  2. (medicine) Limited to a small area.
    Antonyms: nonfocal, locoregional, systemic, widespread

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

focal (plural focals)

  1. (geometry, obsolete) One of two lines perpendicular to the axis of a cone such that the cosine of the angle between the line and the axis is equal to the ratio of the cosines o the semiangles of the cone.
    • 1877, James Booth, A Treatise on Some New Geometrical Methods, page 209:
      Again, if the plane of the impressed couple intersects the mean plane between N and C, it will envelope the cone whose focals are ON, ON′, and whose internal axis is therefore OA.
  2. (Wicca) An object that is used to focus concentration when performing magic.
    • 2000, Sirona Knight, Celtic Traditions: Druids, Faeries, and Wiccan Rituals, page 193:
      Choose your focals to blend well with the intention of your magical work or ritual.
    • 2019, Faith Hunter, Circle of the Moon, page 27:
      And no witch leaves behind focals.
    • 2022, Tracy Deonn, Bloodmarked:
      I use focals for aura work sometimes.
  3. The individual who is the focus of a study or review, when the study or review is based on that individual's interactions with others.
    • 1992, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly - Volume 38, page 198:
      As predicted, focals who were paired with peers produced significantly higher levels of reasoning at posttest ( M = 35.34, SD = 4.44 ) than did focals paired with adults.
    • 1996, Ronald J. Heslegrave, An Exploration of Psychological and Psychophysiologial Measures as Predictors of Successful Performance Under Stress, page 69:
      Thirty-one percent of the focals rated as low transformational by subordinates at time 1 were engaging in two of these three leadership/management styles, and 54% of the focals rated as low transformational were engaging in only one of the three styles.
    • 2006, Alison E. Cook, The Ontogeny of Play in Infant Female Bonobos, page 48:
      As this study covered 46 individual play behaviors, I did not have time to statistically analyze each individual behavior against all age intervals, for all three focals.
    • 2019, Allan H. Church, ‎David W. Bracken, ‎John W. Fleenor, Handbook of Strategic 360 Feedback:
      Relevancy provides focals motivation to change by making the links clear between their behavior and the success of the organization.
  4. A representative of a group or class of people within an organizational system.
    • 2007 Spring, Keith L. Woodman, “Nothing Weak About It: Thriving in a Weak-Matrix Project Environment”, in Ask Magazine, page 47:
      Attempting to balance priorities across the exploration, science, and aeronautics programs requires constant and complex negotiations betwen the center focals, the projects they represent, and Langley's engineering directorates.
    • 2012, Raul Valverde, Information Systems Reengineering for Modern Business Systems., page 251:
      Consolidate all focals' requirements: To be done by the Operations Manager.
    • 2022, Asian Development Bank, Mainstreaming Water Resilience in Asia and the Pacific:
      Providing technical support to regional climate and WSG focals of all operational divisions on water resilience will amplify the larger pool of project officers.
  5. A sign or similar type of marketing material designed to draw attention to special deals.
    • 2007, David Weinberger, Everything Is Miscellaneous:
      Gesturing at the cleanliness of the design, Medill says, “Originally we had 'focals,'“—signs that call out special offers—“but they blocked eyeballs.”
  6. The central or most important element of something; a focal element.
    • 1997, Lewis Acrelius Froman, Language and Power, page 100:
      We become "native speakers," but variably with respect to numerous valued/powered criteria of truth/goodness/beauty (focals) and their derivative values which "leave" "some” more valuable ( as speakers ) than others.
    • 2022, Celestina Robertson, Cut Flowers: Bloom Gardener's Guide, page 25:
      When using supporting flowers, consider their size and shape in relation to the focals and how the colour supports and enhances them.
  7. A major point of interest; an attraction.
    • 1978, New Orleans region transportation study, page 29:
      In the Visual Survey Analysis Report, focals are divided into four categories; visual, historical, symbolic, and cultural focals. Focals might correspond to the Kevin Lynch definition of landmarks.
  8. An exemplar of a concept.
    • 1995, Roy G. D'Andrade, The Development of Cognitive Anthropology, page 108:
      So informants, like languages, show a stable, agreed upon placement of focals, but considerable variability in the boundaries for the extensions of terms.

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Learned borrowing from New Latin focālis.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

focal (feminine focale, masculine plural focaux, feminine plural focales)

  1. focal

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish focul, from Proto-Celtic *woxtlom, from Proto-Indo-European *wokʷtlom, from *wekʷ-.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

focal m (genitive singular focail, nominative plural focail)

  1. word
    Ní raibh focal ag Peadar.
    Peter had nothing to say for himself.
  2. phrase, remark, observation, saying
    Is fearr focal sa chúirt ná punt sa sparán. (proverb)
    A friend in court is better than a pound in the purse.
  3. intelligence, message
  4. order
  5. promise, assurance

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
focal fhocal bhfocal
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stüber, Karin (1998) The Historical Morphology of n-Stems in Celtic, Maynooth: Department of Old Irish, National University of Ireland, →ISBN, page 70.

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Learned borrowing from New Latin focālis. By surface analysis, foco +‎ -al.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Rhymes: -al, -aw
  • Hyphenation: fo‧cal

Adjective[edit]

focal m or f (plural focais, not comparable)

  1. (optics) focal (relating to foci)
  2. (medicine) focal (limited to a small area)

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French focal.

Adjective[edit]

focal m or n (feminine singular focală, masculine plural focali, feminine and neuter plural focale)

  1. focal

Declension[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Learned borrowing from New Latin focālis.

Adjective[edit]

focal (plural focales)

  1. focal

Further reading[edit]