galva

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See also: gálva and galvā

Latvian[edit]

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 galva on Latvian Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *galwāˀ, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷol- (spike, tip, peak) (whence also Latvian gals (end)) with an extra suffix *-wā. The meaning evolution was probably “spike, peak” → “top part” → “head.” A few researchers have suggested other Proto-Indo-European stems (*ghel- (stone), or *gol- (naked)). Cognates include Latgalian golva, Lithuanian galvà, Old Prussian gallū (from *galvū, from *galva), galwo (head of boot), Sudovian kałfa (from *galva), Proto-Slavic *golva (Old Church Slavonic глава (glava), Russian голова (golová), Ukrainian голова (holová), Belarusian галава (halavá), dialectal голаў (holaŭ), Bulgarian глава (glavá), Czech hlava, Polish głowa), Hittite [script needed] (ḫalanta) (where comes from a guttural), perhaps Old Armenian գլուխ (glux).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

galva f (4th declension)

  1. (anatomy) head (top or front of the body, where the brain is located)
    cilvēka, suņa, čūskas galvaa human, dog's, snake's head
    galvas muskuļihead muscles
    pagriezt galvuto turn one's head
    pamāt ar galvuto nod one's head
    saņemt galvu rokāsto take one's head in one's hands
    purināt, kratīt galvuto shake one's head
    galva sāpthe head hurts
    galvas tableteshead(ache) tablets, pills
  2. (anatomy) hair, feathers (on the head)
    sirma galvagray hair
    mazgāt galvuto wash one's hair
    sukāt, ķemmēt galvuto brush, to comb one's hair
    galva balta kā ābelehair as white as an apple tree
  3. on, or around, the head (1)
    likt cepuri galvāto put a hat on one's head
    siet lakatu galvāto tie a scarf around one's head
  4. life
    riskēt ar savu galvuto gamble with one's head (= life)
  5. mind, intelligence, understanding, memory
    gaiša, gudra galvabright, smart head
    cilvēks ar galvua person with head (= wise, intelligent)
    zināt no galvasto know (something) from the head (= by heart)
    rēķināt galvāto calculate in one's head
    paturēt skaidru galvuto keep a clear head (= remain calm)
  6. top (especially round) part of an object
    naglas, skrūves galvathe head of a nail, a screw
    āmura, cirvja galvathe head of a hammer, an axe
  7. authoritative person, boss, leader
    valdības galvathe head of the government
    ģimenes galvathe head of the family
  8. a person or animal as a counting unit
    septiņu galvu liela ģimenea family with seven heads (= members)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “galva”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7

Lithuanian[edit]

Lithuanian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia lt

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *galwāˀ. Cognate with Proto-Slavic *golva, Latvian galva, Old Prussian gallū.

Noun[edit]

galvà f (plural galvos) stress pattern 3

  1. head (part of the body)

Declension[edit]