kaum

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See also: kauṃ

Cimbrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German kūme, from Old High German kūmo, from Proto-Germanic *kūmaz, *kūmijaz (weak, pitiful, frail), from Proto-Indo-European *gewH- (to call, cry). Cognate with German kaum, also English comely.

Adverb[edit]

kaum (Sette Comuni)

  1. barely, hardly
  2. only, just, merely
    Ar is gabéest hia kaum hòite mòrgande.
    He was just here this morning.

Further reading[edit]

  • “kaum” in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo

Daga[edit]

Noun[edit]

kaum

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Kivung (journal of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea), volume 5 (1972), page 204

German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German kūme, from Old High German kūmo, from Proto-Germanic *kūmaz, *kūmijaz (weak, pitiful, frail), from Proto-Indo-European *gewH- (to call, cry).[1]. Cognate with English comely and archaic Dutch kuim (barely).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /kaʊ̯m/, [kʰaʊ̯m]
  • Rhymes: -aʊ̯m
  • (file)
  • (file)

Adverb[edit]

kaum

  1. barely, hardly
    Ich kann das kaum lesen.
    I can barely read this.
    Die Handschrift ist kaum lesbar.
    The handwriting is barely legible.
  2. (with zu infinitive) difficult to, nearly impossible to
    Das ist kaum zu glauben.
    That's difficult to believe.
  3. little
    Synonym: wenig

References[edit]

  1. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2023), “comely”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.

Further reading[edit]

Indonesian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Malay kaum, from Classical Malay kaum, from Arabic قَوْم(qawm).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈkaʊm]
  • Hyphenation: ka‧um

Noun[edit]

kaum (first-person possessive kaumku, second-person possessive kaummu, third-person possessive kaumnya)

  1. people
    Synonym: suku bangsa
  2. family, relative
    Synonyms: sanak, saudara, kerabat, keluarga
  3. group, class
    Synonym: golongan
  4. (archaic, Islam) mosque worker
    Synonyms: lebai, modin
  5. (archaic) matrilineal descendant

Hyponyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Javanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic قَوْم(qawm).

Noun[edit]

kaum

  1. group of people
  2. religious officials in charge of the mosque

Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German kūmo. Cognate with German kaum, Dutch kuim.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

kaum

  1. hardly, barely

Malay[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic قَوْم(qawm).

Noun[edit]

kaum (Jawi spelling قوم‎, plural kaum-kaum, informal 1st possessive kaumku, 2nd possessive kaummu, 3rd possessive kaumnya)

  1. people, community
    Synonyms: masyarakat, warga
  2. tribe, clan
    Synonyms: puak, suku
  3. group of people with common traits, such as an ethnic group or race
    Synonyms: etnik, ras, suku

Further reading[edit]

Plautdietsch[edit]

Adverb[edit]

kaum

  1. barely

Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *kalma.

Noun[edit]

kaum

  1. grave

Declension[edit]

Inflection of kaum (inflection type 5/sana)
nominative sing. kaum
genitive sing. kauman
partitive sing. kaumad
partitive plur. kaumoid
singular plural
nominative kaum kaumad
accusative kauman kaumad
genitive kauman kaumoiden
partitive kaumad kaumoid
essive-instructive kauman kaumoin
translative kaumaks kaumoikš
inessive kaumas kaumoiš
elative kaumaspäi kaumoišpäi
illative kaumaha kaumoihe
adessive kaumal kaumoil
ablative kaumalpäi kaumoilpäi
allative kaumale kaumoile
abessive kaumata kaumoita
comitative kaumanke kaumoidenke
prolative kaumadme kaumoidme
approximative I kaumanno kaumoidenno
approximative II kaumannoks kaumoidennoks
egressive kaumannopäi kaumoidennopäi
terminative I kaumahasai kaumoihesai
terminative II kaumalesai kaumoilesai
terminative III kaumassai
additive I kaumahapäi kaumoihepäi
additive II kaumalepäi kaumoilepäi

White Hmong[edit]

White Hmong cardinal numbers
 <  9 10 11  > 
    Cardinal : kaum

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Hmong-Mien *gju̯ɛp (ten), of Sino-Tibetan origin. Cognate with Iu Mien ziepc.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

kaum

  1. ten

References[edit]

  • Ernest E. Heimbach, White Hmong - English Dictionary (1979, SEAP Publications)