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From Proto-Indo-European *(H)r̥-nw- (to flow, move, run); see also Middle Irish rian (river, way), Old Church Slavonic река (reka, river), Latin rivus (stream), Sanskrit ऋति (ṛti, course, way), रीणाति (rīṇāti, causes to flow) and Gaulish *Renos (that which flows), which is the source of the German river Rhine.[1]



orior (present infinitive orīrī, perfect active ortus sum); fourth conjugation, deponent

  1. I rise, get up.
  2. I appear, become visible.
  3. I am born, come to exist, originate.


   Conjugation of orior (fourth conjugation, deponent)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present orior orīris, orīre orītur orīmur orīminī oriuntur
imperfect oriēbar oriēbāris, oriēbāre oriēbātur oriēbāmur oriēbāminī oriēbantur
future oriar oriēris, oriēre oriētur oriēmur oriēminī orientur
perfect ortus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect ortus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect ortus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present oriar oriāris, oriāre oriātur oriāmur oriāminī oriantur
imperfect orīrer orīrēris, orīrēre orīrētur orīrēmur orīrēminī orīrentur
perfect ortus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect ortus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present orīre orīminī
future orītor orītor oriuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives orīrī ortus esse oritūrus esse
participles oriēns ortus oritūrus oriendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
orīrī oriendī oriendō oriendum ortum ortū

Derived terms[edit]



  • orior in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • orior in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • orior in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the Rhine rises in the Alps: Rhenus oritur or profluit ex Alpibus
    • the sun rises, sets: sol oritur, occidit
    • to begin with a long syllable: oriri a longa (De Or. 1. 55. 236)
    • war breaks out: bellum oritur, exardescit
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 326
  1. ^ From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic : A Linguistic History, Volume 1