zaļš

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See also: žals

Latvian[edit]

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Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *zel-, *zal-, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃- (to shine), whence also zelts (gold) and several other color terms (e.g., zils, dzeltens). In fact, the color meaning of this term was at first not as specific as it is today: compare the dialectal variant zals (brown, reddish-yellow, light red), and also several borrowings from Baltic languages: Estonian haljas (bright, shiny, shiny green) (< *žaļas), Finnish haljakka (pale, pale gray). Under the influence of zāle (grass), its meaning stabilized as “green.” Cognates include Lithuanian žãlias, Old Prussian saligan (zaljan, zalgan?), Old Church Slavonic зєлєнъ (zelenŭ), Russian зелёный (zeljónyj), Bulgarian зелен (zelén), Czech zelený, Polish zielony.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

Zaļš

zaļš (def. zaļais, comp. zaļāks, sup. viszaļākais; adv. zaļi)

  1. green (having the color typical of, e.g., grass and leaves in summer)
    gaiši, tumši zaļš‎ ― light, dark green
    dzeltenīgi zaļš‎ ― yellow(ish) green
    zaļas lapas‎ ― green leaves
    zaļa gaisma‎ ― green light
    zaļa zīda kleita‎ ― green silk dress
    zaļais siers‎ ― green cheese
  2. green, greenish (having a tone or hue similar to green when compared to other related element)
    zaļā varde, krupis‎ ― green frog, toad
    zaļā sūna‎ ― green moss
    zaļā tēja‎ ― green tea
  3. (of people's faces) pale, unhealthy color
    viņš necieš jūras; kā uzpūš stingrāks vējš, tā paliek zaļš ģīmī un vemj‎ ― he can't suffer the sea; when the wind blows stronger, his face becomes green and he vomits
  4. (of plants) green (which is growing, developing; having leaves, needles, grass)
    zaļi asni‎ ― green sprouts
    zaļš koks‎ ― green tree
    zaļš tīrums‎ ― green field
    zaļa pļava‎ ― green meadow
    zaļā vasara‎ ― green summer
  5. (of fruits, berries) green, not ripe; (of wood) not ready to burn
    zaļš ābols‎ ― green apple
    siens vēl ir zaļš‎ ― the hay is still green
    'malka bija zaļa un negribēja degt‎ ― the wood was green and did not want to burn
  6. uncooked, raw
    zaļa gaļa‎ ― raw, uncooked meat
    'ēst zaļus burkānus, kāpostus‎ ― to eat raw carrots, cabbage
  7. new, unexperienced;
    puisis vēl ir zaļš‎ ― the guy is still green (= unexperienced)
  8. untroubled, trouble-free carefree
    nu sāksies zaļa dzīve‎ ― now begins the untroubled life
    pienāca zaļas dienas‎ ― the carefree days have come

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]
Colors in Latvian · krāsas (layout · text)
     sarkans, sārts      zaļš      dzeltens      ?      balts
     {{{crimson}}}      ?      ?      ?      rozā
     ?      zils      oranžs      pelēks      ?
     melns      violets      brūns      ?      ?

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “zaļš”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7