smags

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *smag-, from Proto-Indo-European *smog- (such that it presses heavily; to work hard, to carry a heavy load). The much broader range of meanings in the Lithuanian cognate was apparently also once present in its Latvian counterpart: remnants are still found in uses like smags gaiss “heavy air” = “stifling,” and, dialectally, also “fast, quick” or “intensely, a lot.” It would seem that the meaning of this word first broadened (“heavy, hard(working)” > “(to hit) heavily, hard” > “strong” > “capable, competent” > “good, nice”) and then was restricted again to “heavy.” (Alternatively, the other uses might result from Lithuanian influence.) Cognates include Lithuanian smagùs (good, nice, pleasant; joyful, cheerful; fast, quick; strong, agile, skillful; big, intensive; sonorous; rich, well-off; severe, angry, harsh; useful, handy; heavy; stifling), smōgti (to hit heavily, strongly; to throw), Ancient Greek μογέω (mogéō, I try, strive), σμογερόν (smogerón, difficult, painful).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

smags (def. smagais, comp. smagāks, sup. vissmagākais; adv. smagi)

  1. heavy (such that it has great weight, a large mass)
    smags akmensheavy stone
    smags spainisheavy bucket
    smaga kravaheavy load
    smaga vielaheavy substance
    smaga augsneheavy (= thick, muddy) soil
    pacelt smagu nastu — to lift a heavy burden
    lielais āmurs bija tik smags, ka Juris to tikko ar vienu roku cēla — the big hammer was so heavy that Juris could barely lift it with one hand
  2. (with numeric measurement in the accusative) heavy
    vienu kilogramu smags atsvars — a one-kilo (heavy) weight
    divas tonnas smaga krava — a two-ton (heavy) load
  3. heavy (larger, more important, more powerful than others of its kind)
    smagie tankiheavy tanks
    smagie ieročiheavy weapons
    smagā artilērijaheavy artillery
    smagā rūpniecībaheavy industry
    smagie ķīmiskie elementiheavy chemical elements
    smagie metāliheavy metals
    smagi, smagie joniheavy ions
    smagais ūdensheavy water (with deuterium instead of common hydrogen)
  4. (of the sky, clouds) heavy (giving the appearance of greater weight, larger mass)
    debesis sedza smagi mākoņiheavy clouds covered the sky
    debesis bija zemas, pelēkas un smagas ka piens ar svinu — the sky was low, gray and heavy like milk with lead
  5. (of gases, fog, smoke, smells) heavy (concentrated, thick, dense, strong)
    migla bija smaga un bieza un apēda daudz gaismas — the fog was heavy and thick and ate (= absorbed) a lot of light
    gaiss kļuva smags un spiedīgs, un drīz vien pārņēm nogurums — the air became heavy and muggy, and soon the fatigue took over
    skurbināja smagā sveķu smarža — the heavy resinous odor was intoxicating
  6. (of darkness, night) heavy, dark
    smaga tumsaheavy darkness
    tumši, smagi toņi — dark, heavy hues, shades (of color)
    violetā ir smaga, nomācoša krāsa — violet is a heavy, depressing color
  7. (of food) heavy (difficult to digest)
    paēdis smagas vakariņas, Vītols atstāja ēdienu izgarojumiem, piesātinātās viesnīcas koptelpas — having eaten a heavy dinner, Vītols left the hotel commons saturated (with) meal fumes
  8. heavy, hard, tough, difficult (such that it needs great physical effort to be carried out)
    smags darbsheavy, hard, difficult work
    smags nobrauciens no kalna — a difficult descent from the mountain
    smaga cīņahard, difficult struggle
    dežūra bija pagadījusies smaga, pa visu nakti viņa netika aizvērusi ne acu — her shift had been hard, she didn't close her eyes even once during the whole night
    ceļš būs smags; jātiek pāri kalnu pārejai — the road will be heavy (= difficult); (we) will have to go over the mountain pass
  9. heavy, hard, tough, difficult (such that it needs great mental or emotional effort for its realization, understanding)
    smaga mācību vielahard, difficult learning material
    smaga izvēlehard, difficult choice
    smags jautājumshard, difficult question
    smaga izskaidrošanāsdifficult explanation
    māte ir atnākusi atrunāt dēlu no brīvdomības: tas patiesībā ir vissmagākais pārbaudījums — the mother came to dissuade her son from free thinking: this really is the hardest, toughest challenge
    smago klusumu primais pārtrauca mehāniķis Glūda; viņš ierunājās savā vecīgi mierīgajā balsī — the mechanic Glūas was the first to break the heavy silence; he began to speak in (his) old, calm voice
  10. heavy, tough, hard, severe (relating to difficulty, hardships, misery, or embarrassment, concern with some situation or event)
    smagi dzīves apstākļidifficult, tough living conditions
    smaga nelaimesevere unhappiness, misery
    smaga jaunībadifficult youth
    sevišķi smags bija pilsētnieku saimnieciskais stāvoklis... produktus nebija iespējams nopirkt — the economic situation of the townspeople was particularly difficult: (they) could not (even) buy groceries
    šajā smagajā brīdī viņam šķita, ka vienīgais dzīves atrisinājums ir pašnāvība — in this difficult moment it seemed to him that the only solution to life was suicide
  11. (of feelings, mental states) heavy, difficult, severe, gloomy (very unpleasant; implying, expressing suffering)
    smagas bēdassevere grief, sadness
    smags noskaņojumsheavy, gloomy mood
    smaga nopūtaheavy sigh
    smagas atmiņasheavy memories
    cilvēki var pēkšņi nosirmot smagu pārdzīvojumu ietekmē — people can suddenly become gray(-haired) under the inluence of (= because of) heavy, difficult experiences
    Līzbete atvēra durvis plaši vaļa un teica smagā čukstā: “noliec to glāzi vienu brītiņu nost un iznāc laukā... tēvs ir nomiris” — Līzbete opened the door wide and said in a heavy whipster: “leave this glass for a moment and come outside... father is dead”
    Vērdiņš iet un domā smagu domu... jau otro reizi savā mužā viņš nes mīļu biedru, kas kritis no vācieša lodes — Vērdiņš walks and thinks heavy thoughts... for the second time in his life he is carrying a dear comrade who fell to the German bullets
  12. heavy, serious, severe, dangerous (especially dangerous or harmful to others)
    smags likuma pārkāpējs — a dangerous criminal (lit. heavy law breaker)
    tīša slepkavība ir viens no smagākajiem noziegumiem — deliberate homicide is one of the most serious crimes
  13. (of judgments, penalties) heavy, serious, strict, severe, merciless
    smags tiesas spriedumssevere, strict judgment
    smags nosodījumsheavy punishment, penalty
    smagi pārmetumiserious accusations
    vaigos sadzina asinis rupji, smagi vārdi — the harsh, severe words made blood come to (his) cheeks
    sods nebija smags, bet pietiekams, lai atskurbtu Kristaps — the punishment was not severe, (it was) enough to sober up Kristaps
  14. (of people) difficult (with whom it is difficult to communicate successfully; quarrelsome)
    biedri to uzskatīja par smagu un nebiedrisku cilvēku, jo viņš bija skarbs un mazrunīgs — his colleagues considered him a difficult, non-social person, because he was gruff and uncommunicative
    Viktorijas raksturā ir kaut kas neizprotams un smags; Centim šķiet, ka viņai nevar uzticēties — in Viktorija's character there is something incomprehensible and hard (= difficult to get by); it seemed to Centis that she couldn't be trusted
  15. heavy, serious (implying strong physical, mental or emotional pain, suffering; life-threatening)
    smags ievainojumsheavy, serious injury
    smaga slimībaserious illness, disease
    smaga saindēšanasheavy poisoning
    smaga operācijaheavy, painful operation
    smaga depresijaheavy, serious depression
    smags slimnieksseverly sick person (lit. heavy patient)
    pirmdienas vakarā mūsu slimnīcā smagās dzemdībās kādai jaunai sievietei piedzima bērns — on Monday evening in our hospital some woman gave birth to a child in a heavy, difficult delivery
  16. (of breath) heavy, difficult
    Ziemelis pēkšņi pieceļas, elpa viņam, nule pamanu, kļuvusi satraukta, smaga — Ziemelis suddenly stood up, (and) his breath, I notice, has become troubled, heavy
  17. (of sleep) heavy, difficult
    kad uzlēca saule, viņš gāja uz mājām un, nokritis dažas stundas smagā, murgu pilnā miegā, devās atkal uz skolu — when the sun rose, he went home and, after falling into heavy, nightmare-filled sleep for a few hours, went back to school
  18. (of bodies, their parts) heavy, tired, weak
    smagi plakstiņiheavy eyelids
    ak, cik smagas, nogurušas kājas! vai gan brīnums? ir jau tālu iets — oh, what heavy, tired legs! is that a wonder? it has been, after all, a long way
  19. (of motion, actions) heavy (characterized by lack of agility or grace; slow, difficult)
    māte turpināja iet vienmuļā, smagā gaitā — mother continued to walk in a monotonous, heavy gait
    Gundega dzirdēja, cik žēli čīkstēja kāpnes zem Ilmas smagajiem soļiem; parasti Ilma skrēja lejup pa trepēm viegli un ātri — Gundega heard how sadly the stars crackd under Ilma's heavy steps; usually Ilma ran upstairs easily and quickly
  20. (of texts, words, style) heavy (difficult to follow or understand)
    smags stilsheavy, difficult style
    smaga teikuma konstrukcijaheavy, complex sentence construction
    viņa valoda ritēja smaga un gausa — his language flowed heavy and sluggish
  21. (of sounds) low, low-pitched, hollow
    smags pērkoa dārdienslow thunder rumblings
    smagas egļu šalkaslow, hollow rustling of spruce trees
    iedunējās baznīcas zvans; dobjas, smagas skaņas aizplūda pāri kalnam — the church bell began tolling; the hollow, heavy sounds flowed over the hills
  22. (of weather) heavy (very unpleasant; unpleasantly strong)
    smags negaissheavy storm
    smags, mitrs vējš skrien pār sniega laukiem — a heavy, humid wind ran over the snowy countryside
    klimats Melvilas salā smags: musoni, vasaras lietus gāzes un karstums — the climate on Melville island (is) heavy: monsoons, summer rainstorms and heat

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “smags” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7