hard

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See also: härd and hård

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English, from Old English heard (hard), from Proto-Germanic *harduz, from Proto-Indo-European *kert-, *kret- (strong; powerful). Cognate with West Frisian hurd, Dutch hard, Old Saxon hard, hart, German hart, Danish hård.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

  1. (of material or fluid) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Resistant to pressure.
      This bread is so stale and hard, I can barely cut it.
    2. (of drink) Strong.
    3. (of water) High in dissolved calcium compounds.
    4. (physics, of a ferromagnetic material) Having the capability of being a permanent magnet by being a material with high magnetic coercivity (compare soft).
  2. (personal or social) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Requiring a lot of effort to do or understand.
      a hard problem
      • 1988, An Oracle, Edmund White
        Ray found it hard to imagine having accumulated so many mannerisms before the dawn of sex, of the sexual need to please, of the staginess sex encourages or the tightly capped wells of poisoned sexual desire the disappointed must stand guard over.
      • 2013 July 26, Nick Miroff, “Mexico gets a taste for eating insects […]”, The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 7, page 32: 
        The San Juan market is Mexico City's most famous deli of exotic meats, where an adventurous shopper can hunt down hard-to-find critters such as ostrich, wild boar and crocodile.
    2. Demanding a lot of effort to endure.
      a hard life
    3. Severe, harsh, unfriendly, brutal.
      a hard master;  a hard heart;  hard words;  a hard character
    4. (dated) Difficult to resist or control; powerful.
  3. Unquestionable.
    hard evidence
    • 2011 December 19, Kerry Brown, “Kim Jong-il obituary”, The Guardian:
      Unsurprisingly for a man who went into mourning for three years after the death in 1994 of his own father, the legendary leader Kim Il-sung, and who in the first 30 years of his political career made no public statements, even to his own people, Kim's career is riddled with claims, counter claims, speculation, and contradiction. There are few hard facts about his birth and early years.
  4. (of a road intersection) Having a comparatively larger or a ninety-degree angle.
    At the intersection, there are two roads going to the left. Take the hard left.
  5. (slang, vulgar, of a male) Sexually aroused.
    I got so hard watching two hot girls wrestle each other on the beach.
  6. (bodybuilding) Having muscles that are tightened as a result of intense, regular exercise.
  7. (phonetics)
    1. Plosive.
      There is a hard c in "clock" and a soft c in "centre".
    2. Unvoiced
      Hard k, t, s, ch, as distinguished from soft, g, d, z, j
  8. (art) Having a severe property; presenting a barrier to enjoyment.
    1. Rigid in the drawing or distribution of the figures; formal; lacking grace of composition.
    2. Having disagreeable and abrupt contrasts in colour or shading.

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Adverb[edit]

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

  1. (manner) With much force or effort.
    He hit the puck hard up the ice.
    They worked hard all week.
    At the intersection, bear hard left.
    The recession hit them especially hard.
    Think hard about your choices.
    • Dryden
      prayed so hard for mercy from the prince
    • Shakespeare
      My father / Is hard at study; pray now, rest yourself.
    • 1985, Michael A. Arbib, In search of the person: philosophical explorations in cognitive science, page 119:
      What, then, of the voluntarist's sense that one often has to think long and hard before making agonizing choices?
  2. (manner) With difficulty.
    His degree was hard earned.
    The vehicle moves hard.
  3. (obsolete) So as to raise difficulties.
    • Sir Thomas Browne
      The question is hard set.
  4. (manner) Compactly.
    The lake had finally frozen hard.
  5. (now archaic) Near, close.
    • Bible, Acts xviii. 7
      whose house joined hard to the synagogue
    • 1999, George RR Martin, A Clash of Kings, Bantam 2011, p. 418:
      It was another long day's march before they glimpsed the towers of Harrenhal in the distance, hard beside the blue waters of the lake.

Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

hard (plural hards)

  1. (nautical) A firm or paved beach or slope convenient for hauling vessels out of the water

Statistics[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch hart, from Old Dutch hart, from Proto-Germanic *harduz, from Proto-Indo-European *kert-, *kret- (strong; powerful). Compare German hart, English hard, Danish hård.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardst)

  1. (objects) hard, strong
  2. (numismatics) strong, not easily devalued
  3. unquestionable, uncontestable
    harde feiten: hard facts
  4. (emotion) heartless, unsympathetic
  5. hard, difficult
    een harde strijd: a difficult fight
  6. (magnitude) harsh, heavy
    harde straffen: harsh punishments
    een harde regen: heavy rain
  7. (water) hard, rich in calcium

Declension[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

  • resistant to pressure: zacht

Derived terms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

hard

  1. (speed) fast, swiftly
    Ik heb een bekeuring gekregen omdat ik te hard heb gereden.
    I got a ticket because I drove too fast.
  2. very
  3. (noise) loudly

Verb[edit]

hard

  1. first-person singular present indicative of harden
  2. imperative of harden

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowing from English hard

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard (masculine and feminine, plural hards)

  1. (of pornography) hardcore
    Des photos hards.
    hardcore pictures.

Noun[edit]

hard m (plural hards)

  1. hardcore pornography
    Le Journal du hard est une émission de Canal + dédiée au cinéma pornographique.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard

  1. h-prothesized form of ard

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz, Proto-Indo-European *kert-, *kret- (strong; powerful).

Adjective[edit]

hard (neuter singular hardt, definite singular and plural harde)

  1. hard
  2. hard, stern, severe
  3. hardy

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz, from Proto-Indo-European *kert-, *kret- (strong; powerful).

Adjective[edit]

hard (masculine and feminine hard, neuter hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardare, indefinite superlative hardast, definite superlative hardaste)

  1. hard
  2. hard, stern, severe
  3. hardy

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *harduz, whence also Old English heard, Old Dutch hart, Old Frisian herd, Old Norse harðr, Gothic 𐌷𐌰𐍂𐌳𐌿𐍃 (hardus). Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *kert-, *kret- (strong; powerful).

Adjective[edit]

hard (comparative hardiro, superlative hardist)

  1. hard

Declension[edit]




Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]