-ης

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
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See also: ης, ἧς, and ᾖς

Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The suffix is native to Pre-Greek.

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Suffix[edit]

-ης (-ēsm or f (neuter -ες); third declension

  1. Forms third-declension adjectives with stems in -εσ- (-es-); very common in compounds.
    ἀ- (a-) + ληθ- (lēth-) + -ης (-ēs)ᾰ̓ληθής (alēthḗs)

Declension[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ης (-ēsm (genitive -ους or -εος); third declension

  1. Forms third-declension proper nouns.
    κρᾰ́τος (krátos, state) + ‎-ης (-ēs) → ‎Κρᾰ́της (Krátēs, Crates)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  • Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920), “Part III: Formation of Words”, in A Greek grammar for colleges, Cambridge: American Book Company, § 858.5

Greek[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ης (-is) (ending of masculine nouns)

  1. ending of parisyllabic masculine nouns, deriving from ancient 1st declension
    1. in -ης, -η, plural -ες, -ών, e.g. ναύτης (náftis, sailor) < ναύτης
    2. in -ής, -ή, plural -ές, -ών, e.g. μαθητής (mathitís, student) < μαθητής
  2. ending of parisyllabic masculine nouns deriving from ancient 3rd declension
    1. in -ης, -η, plural -εις, -εων e.g. λάτρης (látris, worshipper) < λάτρις (servant -of god), μάντης (mántis, seer) < μάντις, πρύτανης (prýtanis, rector) < πρύτανις (ruler)
  3. ending of imparisyllabic masculine nouns deriving from ancient -ιος, -ειος
    1. in -ης, plural -ηδες e.g. κύρης (kýris, master) < κύριος, Βασίλης (Vasílis, Basel) < Βασίλειος
    2. in -ής, plural -ήδες (rare) e.g. πεταλωτής (petalotís, farrier) < πεταλώνω from Hellenistic πεταλῶ < ancient πέταλον
  4. ending of imparisyllabic masculine nouns borrowed from Turkish -cı.
    1. in -τζής plural -τζήδες e.g. καφετζής (kafetzís, café owner or waiter) < Turkish kahveci

Suffix[edit]

-ης (-is) (ending of adjectives)

  1. ending of formal adjectives in -ης, -ης, -ες or -ής, -ής, -ές deriving from the corresponding ancient 3rd declension
    e.g. πλήρης (plíris, full) < πλήρης, αήθης (aḯthis, immoral) < ἀήθης
  2. ending of adjectives in -ης, -α, -ικο deriving from Medieval Greek
    e.g. ζηλιάρης (ziliáris, jealous)
  3. ending of adjectives in -άρης (-áris) plural -άρηδες borrowed from Latin -ārius.
    e.g. ταβερνιάρης (taverniáris, taverna owner)
  4. ending of adjectives in -ής, -ιά, -ί and indeclinable -ί, borrowed from Turkish -i (-ι, -u, -ü) mainly for names of colours
    e.g. καφετής (kafetís, brownish)

Suffix[edit]

-ης (-isf (inflectional feminine form)

  1. -ης or -ής genitive singular ending of feminine nouns and adjectives deriving from ancient genitive -ης or -ῆς
    e.g. της φίλης f (fílis, friend -female) < τῆς φίλης
    e.g. της μουσικής f (mousikís, value, honour) < τῆς μουσικῆς

Suffix[edit]

-ης (-is) (ending of adverbs)

  1. adverbs in -ής deriving from genitive feminine ending, Hellenistic or Medieval -ῆς.
    e.g. επικεφαλής (epikefalís, in charge), καταγής (katagís, down on the ground)

Suffix[edit]

-ης (-is) (obsolete inflectional verb ending)

  1. ending of 2nd person, singular, subjunctive used until the 1960s, deriving from its ancient -ῃς (-ēis) equivalent
    να λύνεις (na lýneis, to untie, solve), or λύεις < να λύνης < ἵνα λύῃς

Usage notes[edit]

The dated subjunctive endings -ης2nd singular, -η3rd singular, -ωμεν1st plural may be found in grammar books for Modern Greek published before 1976, when they were reedited to the identically-pronounced indicative endings -εις, -ει, -ουμε/-ομε as Demotic Greek became the official language of education in Greece.

Derived terms[edit]


Further reading[edit]