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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Indo-European *h₁en (in). Often assumed to come from the zero-grade, cf. Lithuanian į; there are, however, no secure examples of *n̥ > Balto-Slavic *un (other examples like *sъto are all riddled with difficulties and unreliable), and the o-grade *h₁on can be posited instead.



  1. (+ locative) in, inside, within (stationary)
  2. (+ accusative) in, into, inside (motion to)
  3. (+ accusative) at (a moment in time)
  4. (+ locative) in, during (a period of time)

Usage notes[edit]

Because of the law of open syllables, the final -n was normally dropped. But when combined with a stem that (originally?) began with a vowel, it was attached to the following word.



  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: въ ()
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic: въ ()
    • Bulgarian: в (v)
    • Macedonian: во (vo)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic: у
      Latin: u
      • Chakavian: u, va
      • Kajkavian: v, vu
    • Slovene: v
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: v, ve
    • Polish: w, we
    • Slovak: v, vo
    • Sorbian:
      • Lower Sorbian: w
      • Upper Sorbian: w


  • Vasmer (Fasmer), Max (Maks) (1964–1973), “в”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Trubačóv Oleg, Moscow: Progress
  • Derksen, Rick (2008), “*vъ(n)”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 530