dziļš

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *gil-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷel-, *gʷl̥- (to stab, to pierce), whence also dzelt (to sting) (q.v.). At first there was a u-stem adjective *gilus > *dzilus (whence the Lithuanian cognate), later replaced by a- and yo-stem counterparts. Later on the yo-stem form stabilized, leading to dziļš, but descendants of the a-stem *dzils can still be found in dialectal terms like dziliene (depth) or in placenames like Dziloņezers (*dzilonis (depth)). Cognates include Lithuanian gilùs (deep), Old Prussian gillin (deep (fem. acc.)).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

dziļš (definite dziļais, comparative dziļāks, superlative visdziļākais, adverb dziļi)

  1. deep (having its bottom far from its surface)
    dziļa upe, akadeep river, well
    dziļš ezersdeep lake
    šeit ūdens ir ļoti dziļšhere the water is very deep
    dziļš grāvisdeep ditch
    dziļa krūzedeep mug
    dziļais šķīvisdeep plate, soup plate
    dziļš robsdeep notch, incision
    mēs izrakām 3 metrus dziļas izlūku akaswe dug 3 meter deep reconnaissance wells
    mēs apsēžamies dziļos ādas klubkrēsloswe sat down in deep leather armchairs
    viņš gāja ātri un smagi, atstādams zemē dziļas pēdashe went fast and hard, leaving deep tracks on the ground
  2. deep (located, extending, moving relatively far from the surface of something)
    dziļš zemes slānisdeep earth layer
    vecam kokam dziļas saknesan old tree (has) deep roots
    mašīna, kas veiks 60-80 metrus dziļus urbumusa machine that will make holes 60-80 meters deep
  3. deep (forming a thick layer)
    sniegs ir ļoti dziļšthe snow is very deep
  4. (of breath) deep (involving a large amount of air)
    dziļš elpas vilciensdeep breath
    dziļā elpošanadeep breathing
  5. (adverbial form; of movements) deep (going down low)
    dziļi paklanītiesto bow deeply (= low)
  6. deep (such that its edge or border is far from the center)
    slēpties dziļā mežāto hide in the deep forest
    dziļa aizmuguredeep rear, area located far from the combat zone
  7. (of silence, darkness, quiet etc.) deep, full
    dziļš nakts miersdeep night quiet
    dziļā naktīin the deep night (i.e., late at night)
    pēc tam klusums ir vēl dziļāksafter that the silence is even deeper
  8. (of physiological processes) deep, full
    dziļš miegsdeep sleep
    dziļa nesamaņadeep unconsciousness
  9. (of psychological or emotional states) deep, strong, stable
    dziļa mīlestībadeep love
    dziļš prieksdeep joy
    dziļa cieņadeep respect
    dziļa sirsnībadeep sincerity
    dziļas sērasdeep mourning
  10. (of beliefs, actions, etc.) deep (expressing itself strongly, very significantly)
    dziļš humānismsdeep humanism
    runāt ar dziļu pārliecībuto speak with deep conviction
    dziļa ietekmedeep, strong influence
    dziļas un būtiskas pārmaiņasdeep and profound (lit. essential) changes
    dziļa patiesība ir tautas sakāmvārdos(there) is deep truth in popular proverbs
  11. (of thoughts, opinions, knowledge, etc.) deep (very important, affecting the foundations of something; content-rich)
    dziļa mūzikadeep music
    dziļa idejadeep idea
    dziļas sarunasdeep conversations
    dziļš zemtekstsdeep subtext
    dziļš romāna idejiskais satursa novel's deep conceptual content
    dziļās pārdomās, Krišjānim radās idejain deep reflection, meditation, Krišjānis had an idea
  12. (of eyes, looks) deep (such that it expresses important, fundamental, content-rich thoughts)
    senators uzlūko mani ar tādu dziļu, pētošu skatenu, it kā gribētu iespiesties manā dvēselēthe senator looked at me with such deep, searching eyes, as if they wanted to penetrate into my soul

Declension[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “dziļš”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7