gatavs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

This word is traditionally considered (together with its Lithuanian and Old Prussian cognates) a borrowing from Slavic, itself, in turn, also traditionally seen as a borrowing from Germanic (Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 (gataujan) may have had a derived adjective *gataws). A more recent hypothesis is that the Slavic words were not borrowed, but derive from Proto-Indo-European *gʷeh₂- (to go, to leave): from short-vowel forms like supine *gʷatu, one would have Proto-Slavic *got-, from which *gotovъ. The original meaning would have been “(about) to go,” “ready (to go),” from which “ready.” (For similar semantic changes, cf. German bereit (ready), reiten (to ride), fertig (ready), Fahrt (a ride), and English ready, ride). If this hypothesis is correct, then Latvian gatavs might also not be a borrowing, but a direct development of Proto-Indo-European *gʷeh₂- (to go, to leave): note that this stem has other Baltic reflexes not shared by Slavic (e.g., Lithuanian góti (to go quickly), or Latvian gāju (I went), gaita (gait, pace), gatve (alley, avenue), dialectal gatava (path, alley)). Note also that Latvian gatavs has some meanings and uses (“mature,” “ripe”; also “full, complete” in negative uses, e.g. “a complete idiot”) not shared by its Slavic counterparts (but, interestingly, often shared by its Finnic translation equivalents: Estonian valmis (ready; ripe; finished)), which suggests that it is an old word. Cognates include Lithuanian gãtavas, Old Prussian pogattawint (to prepare), Old Church Slavonic готовъ (gotovŭ), Russian гото́вый (gotóvyj), Belarusian гато́вы (hatóvy), Ukrainian гото́вий (hotóvyj), Bulgarian гото́в (gotóv), Czech hotový, Polish gotowy, gotów, Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 (gataujan), 𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 (taujan, to do, to make, to be busy with).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

gatavs (def. gatavais, comp. gatavāks, sup. visgatavākais; irreg. adv. (none))

  1. ready (such that it has reached its final or desired state, form; such that it has been prepared, completed)
    jauna ēka ir gatavathe new building is ready
    zīmējums ir gatavsthe drawing is ready
    pirkt gatavu mētelito buy a ready(-made) coat
    gatava mašīnas detaļaa ready(-made) car part
    laivai airi jau gatavithe paddles are ready for the boat
    vakariņas ir gatavasdinner is ready (to eat)
    kartupeļi ir gatavithe potatoes are ready (= cooked)
    gatavai zupai pievieno zaļumushe adds vegetables to the ready (= already cooked) soup
    kad visraksts bija gatavs, es sāku domāt...when the title was ready, I started thinking...
    brokastis bija gatavas; vajadzēja tikai likt galdāthe breakfast was ready; it just needed to be put on the table
    vai jums ir gatavs saraksts par skolas gados esošajiem bērniem?have you prepared a list (lit. do you have a ready list) of the children of school age?
  2. ready (such that it is now able to do something, to be used in a certain way)
    gatavs darbamready to work
    gatavs mācītiesready to study
    gatavs palīdzētready to help
    kaķis bija gatavs lēcienamthe cat was ready to jump
    Imants nodreb, pēkšņi uzlec kājās: “nāciet, bendes! esmu gatavs mirt!”Imants shuddered (and) suddenly jumped up: “come, henchmen! I am ready to die!”
    es biju gatava derēt, ka sievietes domas un, kā man šķita, sapņainais skatiens šai brīdī kavējās ne tikai pie rozēmI was ready to bet that the woman's thoughts and, as it seemed to me, her dreamy glance did not linger only on the roses this time
    tētiņ, pirts nu ir gatava, bet kur ņemšu ūdeni?father, now the bath (place) is ready (for you), but where do I get water?
    rudzu zeme gatava, tikai patlaban bija pārāk sauss, vēl dažas dienas līdz sēšanai jāpagaidathe rye land (is) ready, but right now it is too dry, one must wait a few days before sowing
  3. (of thoughts, ideas) ready, ready-made, formulaic (prepared in advance, not taking into account the actual situation or context)
    bet viņai ir vienmēr par visu gatavi spredumibut she always has a ready judgment (= opinion) about everything
    stāstā nav netīkamas rakstnieka pozas, kuram jau iepriekš viss skaidrs, kuram vienmēr gatava atbilde uz jebkuruin the story there is no unpleasant posturing by the author, to whom everything is clear in advance, who has a ready answer to everything
  4. (of fruits, seeds) ripe, mature (which has reached full growth)
    gatavi āboliripe apples
    gatavs dzeltens bumbierisa ripe yellow pear
    tomāti ir gatavithe tomatoes are ripe
    rudzi jau gatavithe rye (is) already ripe
    labība ir gatavathe crops are ripe, ready
    lasīt gatavas ogasto pick ripe berries
    rieksti bija pilnīgi brūni un gatavithe nuts were fully brown and ripe
  5. (figuratively) ripe, mature (such that its quality has reached a high aesthetic level)
    nākošie darbi jau ir gatavāki, rakstnieks samērā labi atrisina formas un satura problēmasthe next works are more mature, the writer has better solved the problems of form and content
    radīta viena no labākajām, mākslinieciski gatavākajām šā teātra izrādēmone of the best, artistically most mature performances of this theater has been created
  6. (usually in the definite form) real, true; used to reinforce the, usually negative, meaning of the following word
    gatavais palaidnisa real(ly) mischievous child
    gatavais negals ar zēnureal trouble, problems with (that) boy
    gatavais putnu biedēklisa true scarecrow (= a really ugly person)
    tas nebija dēlis, bet gatavais stiklsthat wasn't a (wooden) log, but real glass
  7. (colloquial) finished; dead
    viņam iekoda čūska, un pēc dažām stundām gatavs bijaa snake bit him, and after a few hours he was finished (= dead)
    dabūjis netīšu sitienu pa deniņiem: gatavshe got an accidental blow on the head: finished (= now he is dead)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “gatavs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7