zems

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English[edit]

Noun[edit]

zems

  1. plural of zem

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the same stem as zeme (land), of which it is an adjectival form. Cognates include Lithuanian žẽmas, Old Prussian semmai (adveribal form).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

zems (def. zemais, comp. zemāks, sup. viszemākais; irreg. adv. zemu, zemi)

  1. low, short (having relatively little distance from top to bottom; having low height)
    zems sols, galds‎ ― low bench, table
    zema gulta, sēta‎ ― low bed, fence
    zems pakalns‎ ― low hill
    zemi pakāpieni‎ ― low stairs
    zābaki ar zemiem papēžiem‎ ― boots with low heels
    saimniece ir zema un kupla kā tējas rožu krūms‎ ― the landlady is short and round like a tea rose bush
    durvis šķūnim bija zemas; izejot vajadzēja stipri saliekties‎ ― the barn door was low; (when) going out, (one) had to bend
  2. low (having lower height than the average individual of its type)
    zemais bērzs‎ ― low birch tree
    zemie ķirši‎ ― low cherry trees
    vairums mūsu kultūras ābeļu cēlušās no Dienvideiropā augošās zemās ābeles‎ ― most of our cultures of apple trees have developed from low apple trees (that) grow in Southern Europe
  3. low (located relatively close to the floor, or to the ground, a surface of water, etc.)
    klēts ar zemām sijām‎ ― a barn with low beams
    pāri jūrai uz krasta pusi nāca zemi mākoņi‎ ― over the sea, from the coast side, low clouds were coming
  4. low (located close to the horizon)
    zemā ziemas saule auksti spīdēja starp kokiem‎ ― the low winter sun shone coldly between the trees
  5. low (situated at a leve below that of the rest of the landscape)
    zema pļava‎ ― low meadow
    kad pāriet pār upi, sākas zems, sīkiem alkšņiem klāts līdzenums‎ ― when one goes across the river, (there) starts a low plain, covered with small alder trees
  6. low, small, not important; not reaching the normal level
    zems piena izslaukums‎ ― low milk yield
    zemas cenas‎ ― low prices
    zems spiediens‎ ― low pressure
    zems strāvas spriegums‎ ― low voltage (lit. low current tension)
    zema temperatūra‎ ― low temperature
    zems gaisa mitrums‎ ― low air humidity
    zems prestižs‎ ― low prestige
    zema kvalitāte‎ ― low quality
    zema dienesta pakāpe‎ ― low service level
    zemas prasības‎ ― low requirements
    matrožiem un citiem kuģa strādniekiem ir zemas algas‎ ― the sailors and other ship workers have low wages
  7. low (not satisfying certain requirements or expectations)
    zems kultūras līmenis‎ ― low level of culture
    zems dzīves līmenis‎ ― low level of life
    zema iglītība‎ ― low education
    priekšsēdētājs runā par zemu darba disciplīnu‎ ― the president is talking about the low level of discipline
  8. (of people) low (not having an respectable or important position in society, at work, etc.)
    zems amats‎ ― low (= unimportant) office, position
    zemas kārtas ļaudis‎ ― low class people
    uz Ģertrūdes ielas es panācu pusmūža vīrieti, kādu zemu ierēdni‎ ― on Ģertrūde street I met a middle-aged man, some low official
  9. low, shallow, unworthy, unimportant
    mana dzīve, tu to par seklu nosauci, par zemu‎ ― my life, you call it shallow, low
    prāts lai zemākās lietas šķir, augstās šķir likteņa iegriba!‎ ― let the mind resolve the lower things, the higher ones will be resolved by the caprices of fate
  10. low (not respectful; not following accepted norms)
    zemā stila” vārdi‎ ― low style words
  11. (music, notes, voices) low, deep (having sounds from the lower octaves)
    zemais alts‎ ― low alto
    zemais do‎ ― low do (= low C)
    viņai bija zema un klusa balss‎ ― she had a deep, quiet voice
    dziedot zemās skaņas krūšu reģistrā, dziedātājam vispirms jābūt sajūtai, ka skaņa it kā rodas un atbalsojas krūtīs‎ ― (when) singing in the low=sound chest register, the singer must first have the feeling that the sound arises and echoes in (his) chest
  12. low (expressing the opinion that something is low, shallow, unworthy, unimportant)
    zems novērtējums‎ ― low estimation, opinion
    novērtēt pretinieku par zemu, tas vienmēr is bīstami‎ ― to evaluate an opponent as low (= unimportant), this is always dangerous
  13. low, dishonest, cruel, immoral, ignoble; expressing such qualities
    zems cilvēks‎ ― low, immoral person
    zemi nodomi‎ ― low, immoral intentions
    zema rīcība‎ ― low, immoral action
    tu esi zems cilvēks, Fēlikss Vilde; gļēvulis un blēdis‎ ― you are a low person, Fēlikss Vilde; a coward and a swindler
    tad nāca cieti, zemi, nežēlīgi, tumsas aizklāti vārdi‎ ― then came hard, low, cruel, darkness-covered words

Declension[edit]

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See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “zems”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7