conduce

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE word
*ḱóm

From Late Middle English conducen (to guide, lead; (surgery) to draw together (edges of a wound, or parts of a torn sinew); to set (a broken bone)),[1] borrowed from Latin condūcere, the present active infinitive of condūcō (to bring, draw, or lead together, assemble, collect; to contribute to something by being useful, be of use, be conducive to), from con- (prefix denoting a bringing together of several things) + dūcō (to conduct, guide, lead, lead away) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dewk- (to draw, pull; to lead (pull behind oneself))).[2] Doublet of conduct and conn.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

conduce (third-person singular simple present conduces, present participle conducing, simple past and past participle conduced) (formal)

  1. (transitive, obsolete)
    1. To cause (something) to occur; to bring about.
      • 1518, John Strype, quoting Thomas Wolsey, “Wolsey’s Counsil and Influence in the King’s Affairs. [...]”, in Ecclesiastical Memorials; Relating Chiefly to Religion, and the Reformation of It: Shewing the Various Emergencies of the Church of England, under King Henry the Eighth. [], volume I, London: [] John Wyat, [], published 1721, →OCLC, page 21:
        And vvell aſſured you may be, the King's Highneſs upon Sight of theſe your ſaid Letters, not only much commended your great Diligence and provident Dexterity, in the vviſe conducing of theſe his vveighty Matters, vvhereby ye have deſerved his ſingular Favour and Thanks, but alſo took great Rejoicing, Conſolation and Comfort, in this honourable, princely and loving Demeanour of the ſaid French King: []
      • 1529, Gilbert Burnet, “[A Collection of Records and Original Papers; with Other Instruments Referred to in the Former History.] XXIII. Another Dispatch to the Ambassadours to the Same Purpose. A Duplicate.”, in The History of the Reformation of the Church of England. The First Part, [], London: [] T[homas] H[odgkin] for Richard Chiswell, [], published 1679, →OCLC, page 196:
        [T]he King's Grace vvell knovveth, perceiveth, and taketh, that more could not have been done, excogitated, or deviſed, than ye have largely endeavoured your ſelf unto for conducing the King's purpoſe, []
    2. To contribute (something).
    3. (also figuratively) To conduct or lead (someone or something).
      • 1634, T[homas] H[erbert], “A Discourse of the Life and Habit of the Persians at this Present. [The Eight Commandement. Doe so to Others as Thou wouldest haue Them Doe to Thee.]”, in A Relation of Some Yeares Travaile, Begunne Anno 1626. into Afrique and the Greater Asia, [], London: [] William Stansby, and Jacob Bloome, →OCLC, page 160:
        At laſt to conduce things to ſome order out of this Chaos of confuſion, their moſt learned Hiſtorian Elifarni, tooke vpon him to make ſtraight theſe crooked poſtures: []
    4. (rare) To advantage or benefit (someone or something).
      Synonym: profit
    5. (rare, possibly) To carry on or continue (an activity).
  2. (intransitive)
    1. To contribute or lead to a specific result.
      Synonyms: promote, subserve
      Antonym: (obsolete, rare) disconduce
      • c. 1602 (date written), William Shakespeare, The Famous Historie of Troylus and Cresseid. [] (First Quarto), London: [] G[eorge] Eld for R[ichard] Bonian and H[enry] Walley, [], published 1609, →OCLC, [Act II, scene ii]:
        The reaſons you alleadge, do more conduce / To the hot paſſion of diſtempred blood, / Then to make vp a free determination / Tvvixt right and vvrong: []
      • 1631, Francis [Bacon], “IV. Century. [Experiment Solitary Touching Wood Shining in the Darke.]”, in Sylua Syluarum: Or A Naturall Historie. In Ten Centuries. [], 3rd edition, London: [] William Rawley; [p]rinted by J[ohn] H[aviland] for William Lee [], paragraph 352, page 91, →OCLC:
        The Boaring of Holes, in that kinde of VVood, and then laying it abroad, ſeemeth to conduce to make it Shine: []
      • a. 1653 (date written), Inigo Jones, The Most Notable Antiquity of Great Britain, Vulgarly Called Stone-heng on Salisbury Plain. [], London: [] James Flesher for Daniel Pakeman [], and Laurence Chapman [], published 1655, →OCLC, page 96:
        'Tis true, if Mythologie, and not demonſtrative reaſons vvere to be fixt upon in matters of Architecture, the former conceptions might be ſome ground to frame conjectures Stoneheng ſacred to Pan. But, Architecture depending upon demonſtration, not fancy, the fictions of Mythologiſts are no further to be embraced, then as not impertinently conducing to prove reall truths.
      • 1656, Thomas Hobbes, “Of Method”, in anonymous translator, Elements of Philosophy, the First Section, Concerning Body. [], London: [] R[obert] & W[illiam] Leybourn for Andrew Crooke, [], →OCLC, part 1 (Computation or Logique), paragraph 3, page 50:
        In the Study of Philoſophy men [] endeavour to find out the certainty of ſomething in queſtion; as vvhat is the cauſe of Light, of Heat, of Gravity, of a Figure propounded, and the like; or in vvhat Subject any propounded Accident is inhærent; or vvhat may conduce moſt to the generation of ſome propounded Effect from many Accidents; or in vvhat manner particular Cauſes ought to be compounded for the production of ſome certaine Effect.
      • 1658 November 26 (date written; Gregorian calendar), Richard Baxter, “The Necessary Grounds, Ends and Principles of a Universal Concord between All Faithful Pastors and Churches According to Their Capacity of Communion”, in Universal Concord. The First Part. The Sufficient Terms Proposed for the Use of Those that Have Liberty to Use Them: [], London: [] R. W[hite] for Nevil Simmons, [], published 1660, →OCLC, paragraph VII.5, signature [a6], verso:
        It [i.e., holy discipline] conduceth to the conviction and ſalvation of the unbelieving vvorld, vvho are not capable of judging of our doctrine by it ſelf, but vvill judge of it by the quality of the Church that doth profeſs it.
      • 1749, Henry Fielding, “Containing Instructions very Necessary to be Perused by Modern Critics”, in The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, volume IV, London: A[ndrew] Millar, [], →OCLC, book X, page 2:
        Firſt, then, vve vvarn thee not too haſtily to condemn any of the Incidents in this our Hiſtory, as impertinent and foreign to our main Deſign, becauſe thou doſt not immediately conceive in vvhat manner ſuch Incident may conduce to that Deſign.
      • 1818, [Mary Shelley], chapter V, in Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. [], volume III, London: [] [Macdonald and Son] for Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor, & Jones, →OCLC, page 103:
        I resolved, therefore, that if my immediate union with my cousin would conduce either to her's or my father's happiness, my adversary's designs against my life should not retard it a single hour.
      • 1822, Samuel Latham Mitchill, “The Krout Club”, in William E[vans] Burton, editor, Cyclopedia of Wit and Humor, of America, Ireland, Scotland, and England, division 1, New York, N.Y.: D[aniel] Appleton & Co., [], published 1857, →OCLC, page 54, column 2:
        Best member in the family of Brassica! salubrious is the employment and sweet the reward of rearing thee [the cabbage] for the mouth and stomach! [] Thy votaries here present give evidence in their looks and conduct, how admirably thou conducest to innocent recreation and festive joy.
      • 1837, Edward Lytton Bulwer [i.e., Edward Bulwer-Lytton], chapter I, in Athens: Its Rise and Fall: [], volume I, London: Saunders and Otley, [], →OCLC, book I, page 3:
        [T]he comparative sterility of the land, may be ranked among the causes which conduced to the greatness of the people.
      • 1851, Thomas Babington Macaulay, chapter XIII, in The History of England from the Accession of James the Second, volume III, London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, →OCLC, pages 262-263:
        He had observed, he said, with great satisfaction that many of the Scottish nobility and gentry with whom he had conferred in London were inclined to a union of the two British kingdoms. He was sensible how much such a union would conduce to the happiness of both.
      • 1898–1899, Henry James, chapter XX, in The Awkward Age [], London: William Heinemann, published 25 April 1899, →OCLC, 5th book (The Duchess), page 209:
        "Shall we have conduced to your rest?" / Mr. Longdon looked at the other candle. "You're not coming to bed?" / "To my rest we shall not have conduced. I stay up a while longer."
      • 1918, W[illiam] B[abington] Maxwell, chapter XXXIX, in The Mirror and the Lamp, Indianapolis, Ind.: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, →OCLC, page 305:
        Nothing was too small to receive attention, if a supervising eye could suggest improvements likely to conduce to the common welfare.
      • 1971, Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic: Studies in Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century England, London: Folio Society, published 2012, →OCLC, page 85:
        There was thus a strong tendency to assume that obedience to God's commandments could conduce to prosperity and safety.
      • 2011, Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence has Declined[1], New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, published 2012, →ISBN, page 343:
        Anecdotes aside, many historians are skeptical that trade, as a general rule, conduces to peace.
    2. (obsolete) To be advantageous to; to advantage, to benefit.
      Synonym: profit
      • 1624, Democritus Junior [pseudonym; Robert Burton], “Musicke a Remedy”, in The Anatomy of Melancholy: [], 2nd edition, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Printed by John Lichfield and James Short, for Henry Cripps, →OCLC, partition 2, section 2, member 6, subsection 3, pages 248–249:
        So [Julius Caesar] Scaliger of himſelfe ingenuouſly confeſſeth, [] I am mightily detained and allured vvith that grace & comelineſſe of faire vvomen, I am vvell pleaſed to bee idle amongſt them. And vvhat young man is not? As is acceptable and conducing to moſt, ſo eſpecially to a melancholy man.
        An adjective use.
      • 1652, Nich[olas] Culpeper, “Directions. Sect. 2. The Way of Making and Keeping All Necessary Compounds. Chap. 4. Of Decoctions.”, in The English Physitian: Or An Astrologo-physical Discourse of the Vulgar Herbs of This Nation. [], London: [] Peter Cole, [], →OCLC, page 248, column 1:
        Decoctions are made of Leaves, Roots, Flovvers, Seeds, Fruits, or Barks, conducing to the cure of the Diſease you make them for; in the ſame manner as they are made as vve ſhevved you in Syrups.
      • 1655, Thomas Stanley, “[Simon.]”, in The History of Philosophy. [], volume I, London: [] Humphrey Moseley, and Thomas Dring, [], →OCLC, 3rd part (Containing the Socratick Philosophers), page 119:
        [O]nely be mindfull of me and of thirst; Theſe conduce much to the vviſe.

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ condūcen, v.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. ^ conduce, v.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, July 2023; “conduce, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.

Galician[edit]

Verb[edit]

conduce

  1. inflection of conducir:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Italian[edit]

Verb[edit]

conduce

  1. third-person singular present indicative of condurre

Anagrams[edit]

Latin[edit]

Verb[edit]

condūce

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of condūcō

Noun[edit]

conduce

  1. ablative singular of condux

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin condūcere, present active infinitive of condūcō (lead, bring or draw together), from con- +‎ dūcō (lead), based on the conjugation of duce. Compare French conduire.

First attested in c. 1840.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

a conduce (third-person singular present conduce, past participle condus) 3rd conj. (transitive)

  1. to drive, to conduct
  2. to rule, lead, direct
  3. to drive a vehicle
    Conduci prea repede. Ia-o un pic mai încet.
    You drive too fast. Go a little slower.
  4. to lead (accompany for guidance)

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Spanish[edit]

Verb[edit]

conduce

  1. inflection of conducir:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative