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con- + a derivation of Proto-Indo-European *selh₁- (to take, grab).[1] Compare with cōnsul and cōnsilium. Cognate with English sell, sale.



cōnsulō (present infinitive cōnsulere, perfect active cōnsuluī, supine cōnsultum); third conjugation

  1. (transitive) I consult, seek counsel from, take counsel from.
    Synonym: cōnsultō
    • 27 BCE – 25 BCE, Titus Livius, Ab urbe condita libri 26.1:
      Cn. Fuluius Centumalus P. Sulpicius Galba consules cum idibus Martiis magistratum inissent, senatu in Capitolium uocato, de re publica, de administratione belli, de prouinciis exercitibusque patres consuluerunt.
      When the consuls Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus and Publius Sulpicius Galba took up the magistracy on the Ides of March, they summoned the senate to the Capitoline Hill and consulted the senators on issues regarding the state, the handling of the war, the provinces and the armies.
  2. I deliberate.
  3. (transitive, intransitive, followed by the accusative or with de) I reflect upon, deliberate over, think (something) over.
    Synonyms: reflectō, ponderō, putō, pendō, cōnsīderō, reputō, replicō, dubitō, cōnsultō, circumspiciō, videō, versō
  4. I give thought to, have regard for.
  5. (transitive, followed by the dative) I look after the interests of, take care of (someone).
    Synonyms: cūrō, prōcūrō, cū̆stōdiō, servō, videō, respiciō, colō, cōnsultō, serviō
    • Legati ad eum venissent oratum ut sibi ignosceret suaeque vitae consuleretAmbassadors came to him to beg that he would pardon them and take care of their lives
      (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, VII, 12)
    • ut suis fortunis consulatin order that he might take care of their properties
      (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, VII, 8)
  6. (transitive, followed by the dative) I am mindful of, pay attention to (someone's safety, life; dignity, reputation, etc.)


   Conjugation of cōnsulō (third conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cōnsulō cōnsulis cōnsulit cōnsulimus cōnsulitis cōnsulunt
imperfect cōnsulēbam cōnsulēbās cōnsulēbat cōnsulēbāmus cōnsulēbātis cōnsulēbant
future cōnsulam cōnsulēs cōnsulet cōnsulēmus cōnsulētis cōnsulent
perfect cōnsuluī cōnsuluistī cōnsuluit cōnsuluimus cōnsuluistis cōnsuluērunt,
pluperfect cōnsulueram cōnsuluerās cōnsuluerat cōnsuluerāmus cōnsuluerātis cōnsuluerant
future perfect cōnsuluerō cōnsulueris cōnsuluerit cōnsuluerimus cōnsulueritis cōnsuluerint
passive present cōnsulor cōnsuleris,
cōnsulitur cōnsulimur cōnsuliminī cōnsuluntur
imperfect cōnsulēbar cōnsulēbāris,
cōnsulēbātur cōnsulēbāmur cōnsulēbāminī cōnsulēbantur
future cōnsular cōnsulēris,
cōnsulētur cōnsulēmur cōnsulēminī cōnsulentur
perfect cōnsultus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect cōnsultus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect cōnsultus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cōnsulam cōnsulās cōnsulat cōnsulāmus cōnsulātis cōnsulant
imperfect cōnsulerem cōnsulerēs cōnsuleret cōnsulerēmus cōnsulerētis cōnsulerent
perfect cōnsuluerim cōnsuluerīs cōnsuluerit cōnsuluerīmus cōnsuluerītis cōnsuluerint
pluperfect cōnsuluissem cōnsuluissēs cōnsuluisset cōnsuluissēmus cōnsuluissētis cōnsuluissent
passive present cōnsular cōnsulāris,
cōnsulātur cōnsulāmur cōnsulāminī cōnsulantur
imperfect cōnsulerer cōnsulerēris,
cōnsulerētur cōnsulerēmur cōnsulerēminī cōnsulerentur
perfect cōnsultus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect cōnsultus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cōnsule cōnsulite
future cōnsulitō cōnsulitō cōnsulitōte cōnsuluntō
passive present cōnsulere cōnsuliminī
future cōnsulitor cōnsulitor cōnsuluntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives cōnsulere cōnsuluisse cōnsultūrum esse cōnsulī cōnsultum esse cōnsultum īrī
participles cōnsulēns cōnsultūrus cōnsultus cōnsulendus,
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
cōnsulendī cōnsulendō cōnsulendum cōnsulendō cōnsultum cōnsultū

Derived terms[edit]


  • English: counsel


  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “consulo”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 131
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 899
  • consulo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • consulo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • consulo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to take care of one's health: valetudini consulere, operam dare
    • to take measures for one's safety; to look after one's own interests: saluti suae consulere, prospicere
    • to take measures for one's safety; to look after one's own interests: suis rebus or sibi consulere
    • to look after, guard a person's interests, welfare: rationibus alicuius prospicere or consulere (opp. officere, obstare, adversari)
    • to have regard for one's good name: famae servire, consulere
    • to consult an oracle: oraculum consulere
    • to consult the Sibylline books: libros Sibyllinos adire, consulere, inspicere
    • to further the public interests: rei publicae rationibus or simply rei publicae consulere
    • to be careful of one's dignity: dignitati suae servire, consulere
    • to consult the senators on a matter: patres (senatum) consulere de aliqua re (Sall. Iug. 28)
    • to deal severely with a person: graviter consulere in aliquem (Liv. 8. 13)
    • (ambiguous) the augurs announce an unfavourable sign: augures obnuntiant (consuli) (Phil. 2. 33. 83)
    • (ambiguous) let the consuls take measures for the protection of the state: videant or dent operam consules, ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat (Catil. 1. 2. 4)
    • (ambiguous) to go to Cilicia as pro-consul: pro consule in Ciliciam proficisci