رأي

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See also: رأى‎, رأی, and زاي

Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Verbal noun of the verb رَأَى(raʾā, to see), from the root ر ء ي(r-ʾ-y).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /raʔj/
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

رَأْي (raʾym (plural آرَاء(ʾārāʾ))

  1. verbal noun of رَأَى(raʾā) (form I)
  2. (countable, of cultures, societies, sects, schools of thought, philosophies, ideologies, and the like) an idea, a notion, a concept, a conception; a particular way of thinking, an ideology; a philosophy
    Synonyms: قَوْل(qawl), مَقَالَة(maqāla)
    • (Can we date this quote?), al-Qurṭubī, الجامع لأحكام القرآن [The Collection of the Ordainments of the Qur'an]:
      فأنزل الله هذه الآية ردا عليهم، وإبطالا لقولهم وتصرفهم بجهلهم؛ فإن الورثة الصغار كان ينبغي أن يكونوا أحق بالمال من الكبار، لعدم تصرفهم والنظر في مصالحهم، فعكسوا الحكم، وأبطلوا الحكمة، فضلوا بأهوائهم، وأخطئوا في آرائهم وتصرفاتهم.‎‎
      And so Allah revealed this verse in response to them [the pagan Arabs] and to invalidate their customs and their ignorant practices: young inheritors should have been deemed more deserving of the inheritance than their elders since they can neither act prudently nor perceive their interests, but they inverted this, and they deviated from wisdom. Thus, they strayed because of their whims and fancies, and they erred in their thinking and actions.
    1. an opinion; a view
      • مَا الَّذِي أَضْحَكَ مِنِّي الظِّبْيَاتِ الْعَامِرِيِّةَ / أَلِأَنِّي أَنَا شِيعِيٌّ وَلَيْلَى أُمَوِيَّة / اِخْتِلَافُ الرَّأْيِ لَا يُفْسِدُ لِلْوِدِّ قَضِيَّة
        mā allaḏī ʾaḍḥaka minnī ẓ-ẓibyāti l-ʿāmiriyyiata / ʾaliʾannī ʾanā šīʿiyyun walaylā ʾumawiyya(t) / iḵtilāfu r-raʾyi lā yufsidu lilwiddi qaḍiyya
        What made the 'Amirid antelopes laugh at me? Is it because I myself am a Shia and Layla is an Umayyad? Difference in opinion does not ruin intimacy!
    2. a belief, a conviction; a doctrine
      Synonyms: مَذْهَب(maḏhab), مُعْتَقَد(muʿtaqad)
  3. (countable) a conclusion
    1. a piece of advice, a suggestion; an advisory opinion; a proposal
      • (Can we date this quote?) (Please provide the book title or journal name)[1]:
        محكمة العدل الدولية هي الجهاز القضائي الرئيسي للأمم المتحدة. وتتولى المحكمة الفصل طبقا لأحكام القانون الدولي في النزاعات القانونية التي تنشأ بين الدول، وتقديم آراء استشارية بشأن المسائل القانونية التي قد تحيلها إليها أجهزة الأمم المتحدة ووكالاتها المتخصصة.‎‎
        The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.
    2. a verdict; a judgment; a binding opinion
  4. (uncountable, law) deduction, analogy, inference
    Synonym: قِيَاس(qiyās)
    1. (countable) a deduction, inference, decision, or judgment based on personal understanding, reasoning, or preference; a speculation
      Synonym: اِسْتِحْسَان(istiḥsān)
      • (Can we date this quote?), al-Ṭabarī, جامع البيان في تأويل القرآن [The Compilation of Qur'anic Interpretations]:
        حدثنا الشعبي أن أبا بكر رحمه الله قال في الكلالة: أقول فيها برأيي، فإن كان صوابًا فمن الله: هو ما دون الولد والوالد. قال: فلما كان عمر رحمه الله قال: إني لأستحيي من الله أن أخالف أبا بكر.‎‎
        Al-Sha'bi related that ʾAbū Bakr, may Allah have mercy with him, said this about the "kalālah": "This is my [personal] speculation, so if it is right. it is so because of Allah. [I think] it is anyone except the offspring and parents [of the deceased]". Thus, when ʾUmar, may Allah have mercy on him, came [to power], he said, "I scruple about differing with ʾAbū Bakr."
        (Can we date this quote?), al-Dhahabī, سير أعلام النبلاء [The Lives of the Greatest of Noble Men]:
        وَرَوَى ضَمْرَةُ بْنُ رَبِيعَةَ، عَنْ رَجَاءِ بْنِ جَمِيلٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَبِيعَةُ: رَأَيْتُ الرَّأْيَ أَهْوَنَ عَلَيَّ مِنْ تَبِعَةِ الْحَدِيثِ. قَالَ الْأُوَيْسِيُّ: قَالَ مَالِكٌ: كَانَ رَبِيعَةُ يَقُولُ لِابْنِ شِهَابٍ: إِنَّ حَالِي لَيْسَتْ تُشْبِهُ حَالَكَ. قَالَ: وَكَيْفَ؟ قَالَ: أَنَا أَقُولُ بِرَأْيٍ مَنْ شَاءَ أَخَذَهُ، وَمَنْ شَاءَ تَرَكَهُ ، وَأَنْتَ تُحَدِّثُ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ -صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ- فَيُحْفَظُ.‎‎
        And Damrah ibn Rabīʿah related that Rajāʾ ibn Jamīl said, "Rabīʿah said, 'I found [giving] opinions easier for me than seeking and following traditions.'" Al-ʾUwaysi related that Mālik said, "Rabīʿah once said to Ibn Shihāb, 'My situation is not the same as yours.' 'How so?' Ibn Shihāb said. 'It is because I give opinions, which people may accept [and follow] or reject. Yet you transmit from the Prophet [himself], may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and [what you say,] it becomes memorized [and retained].'"
  5. (uncountable, law, derogatory) the tendency to form or advocate opinions or conclusions that contravene presumed laws (especially prohibitions), advocacy of or support for reputedly unlawful opinions
    1. (countable, law, derogatory) a specious, erroneous, faulty, or invalid interpretation of the law
      • (Can we date this quote?), Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal, السنة [The Traditions]:
        مَا حَفِظْتُ عَنْ أَبِي وَغَيْرِهِ مِنَ الْمَشَايخِ فِي أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ: سَمِعْتُ أَبِيَ يَقُولُ: عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ مَهْدِيٍّ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ: مِنْ حُسْنِ عِلْمِ الرَّجُلِ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ فِي رَأْي أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ. وَأُخْبِرْتُ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ مَنْصُورٍ الْكَوْسَجِ، قَالَ: قُلْتُ لِأَحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ يُؤْجَرُ الرَّجُلُ عَلَى بُغْضِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَأَصْحَابِهِ؟ قَالَ: إِي وَاللَّهِ. سَأَلْتُ أَبِي رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَسْأَلَ عَنِ الشَّيْءِ مِنْ أَمْرِ دِينِهِ مَا يُبْتَلَى بِهِ مِنَ الْأَيْمَانِ فِي الطَّلَاقِ وَغَيْرِهِ فِي حَضْرَةِ قَوْمٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الرَّأْي وَمِنْ أَصْحَابِ الْحَدِيثِ لَا يَحْفَظُونَ وَلَا يَعْرِفُونَ الْحَدِيثَ الضَّعِيفَ الْإِسْنَادِ وَالْقَوِيَّ الْإِسْنَادِ، فَلِمَنْ يَسْأَلُ، أَصْحَابَ الرَّأْي أَوْ أَصْحَابَ الْحَدِيثِ عَلَى مَا كَانَ مِنْ قِلَّةِ مَعْرِفَتِهِمْ؟ قَالَ: يَسْأَلُ أَصْحَابَ الْحَدِيثِ وَلَا يَسْأَلُ أَصْحَابَ الرَّأْي، الضَّعِيفُ الْحَدِيثِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ رَأْي أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ. حَدَّثَنِي مُهَنَّا بْنُ يَحْيَى الشَّامِيُّ، سَمِعْتُ أَحْمَدَ بْنَ حَنْبَلٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ يَقُولُ: مَا قَوْلُ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ عِنْدِي وَالْبُعْدُ إِلَّا سَوَاءٌ
        [This is] what I have memorized from my father and other shaykhs regarding ʾAbū Ḥanīfah. I heard my father relate that Abdul-Rahman ibn Mahdi said, "It is [a sign of] a man's sound knowledge to be skeptical of ʾAbū Ḥanīfah's opinions. Isḥaq ibn Manṣūr al-Kawsaj also said to me, "I asked ʾAḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, 'Would a [believing] man be rewarded for hating ʾAbū Ḥanīfah and his ilk?' And he said, 'By Allah, absolutely.'" I asked my father about someone who wanted to enquire about a matter of religion related to such vexing things as oaths and divorce. That man could ask a group of people of opinions or a group of people of traditions, but the latter have not memorized many hadiths and do not know what is canonical and what is dubious, so which should he seek, the people of opinions or the people of the traditions despite their lack of knowledge?" He said, "He should ask those who follow the traditions: a man who [seeks and] follows the traditions yet cannot discern is far better than ʾAbū Ḥanīfah's opinion. Muhannā ibn Yaḥya al-Shāmi said, "I heard ʾAḥmad ibn Ḥanbal—may Allah be pleased with him—say, ʾAbū Ḥanīfah's views and utter irrelevance are to me one and the same.'"
    2. (countable, derogatory) a purportedly unfounded judgment, conclusion, or attitude
      • (Can we date this quote?), al-Bayhaqī, شعب الإيمان [The Branches of Faith]:
        نا بَقِيَّةُ، قَالَ: نا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ، قَالَ: كُنْتُ آخُذُ بَيْدِ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ فَأَنْصَرِفُ مَعَهُ إِلَى بَيْتِهِ، فَلَا يَمُرُّ بِمُسْلِمٍ وَلَا نَصْرَانِيٍّ وَلَا صَغِيرٍ وَلَا كَبِيرٍ إِلَّا قَالَ: سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ، سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ، سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ، حَتَّى إِذَا انْتَهَى إِلَى بَابِ دَارِهِ الْتَفَتَ إِلَيْنَا، ثُمَّ قَالَ: " يَا بُنَيَّ أَخِي، أَمَرَنَا نَبِيُّنَا صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ نُفْشِيَ السَّلَامَ " قَالَ الْإِمَامُ أَحْمَدُ: " السَّلَامُ عَلَى النَّصْرَانِيِّ رَأْيٌ مِنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ، وَقَدْ رُوِّينَا عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ نَهَى عَنِ ابْتِدَائِهِمْ بِالسَّلَامِ.‎‎
        Baqiyyah related that Muḥammad ibn Ziyād said, "When I was walking with ʾAbū ʾUmāmah to his home, [I noticed that] he would not pass by any Muslim, Christian, child, or senior unless he said to him, 'Peace be upon you! Peace be upon you! Peace be upon you!' until he reached the door of his house, whereupon he turned to me and said, 'Cousin! Our Prophet ordered us to spread peace.'"[Commenting on this,] Imam ʾAḥmad said, "Greeting Christians is ʾAbū ʾUmāma's [own] opinion, and we have already related that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade greeting them."
  6. (uncountable) prudence, sagacity, wisdom, sensibleness, vision
    Synonyms: عَقْل(ʿaql), حِكْمَة(ḥikma), نَظَر(naẓar)
    1. insight, discernment, judgment, discrimination, penetration, sharpness
    2. foresight, forethought, consideration
  7. (uncountable, rare, literary) appearance, look, sight, aspect, visage
    Synonyms: مَرْأَى(marʾā), مَظْهَر(maẓhar), مَنْظَر(manẓar), هَيئَة
    1. (of someone or something) aura, atmosphere

Usage notes[edit]

  • In the sense "ideology", the word may be used to refer to both religions and philosophies, hence "religious sect". When referring to religions, however, this usage is now less common as it may be interpreted as subjectifying the religions being discussed by likening them to "philosophies" and "opinions". Compare with the negative connotations that may be implied by the term ideology in English.
  • In the sense "conclusion", the word may refer to either advisory or binding opinions. When the distinction is deemed unclear or needs to be stressed, a disambiguating adjective is usually added.
  • In the sense "legal deduction", the word may be, and often is, used neutrally. However, in all its derogatory senses, it is very commonly used as a pejorative designation for the Hanafi school of Islamic law and also when critically referring to the opinions of other legalists and jurists who may not actually be associated with the Hanafi school per se. In such contexts, the so-called أَصْحَاب ٱلرَّأْيِّ(ʾaṣḥāb r-raʾyyi, the people of opinions), be they Hanafis or otherwise, are contrasted with either أَصْحَاب ٱلْحَدِيثِ(ʾaṣḥāb l-ḥadīṯi, the adherents of [prophetic] traditions) or أّهْل ٱلظَّاهِرِ(the people of the apparent [meaning]). See the Wikipedia article on Ahl al-Ra'y, Ahl al-Ḥadith, and al-Ẓāhirīyyah for more information.
  • Though closely related, اَلِاسْتِحْسَان([judicial] preference) and اَلرَّأْي(ar-raʾy, analogy, reasoning) (also positively and neutrally known as اَلْقِيَاس(al-qiyās, measurement; analogy)) differ in some respects. See the Wikipedia articles on ʾIstiḥsān and Qiyās for more information.

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Algerian Arabic: راي(rāy)
    • French: raï
      • English: raï
      • German: Raï
  • Gulf Arabic: راي(rāy)
  • Maltese: raj
  • Moroccan Arabic: ري(rayy), راي(rāy), رأي(raʔy)
  • Persian: رأی
  • Swahili: rai
  • Turkish: rey