deren

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See also: Deren and dereń

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch dēren, from Old Dutch *derien, from Proto-Germanic *darjaną.

Verb[edit]

deren

  1. (transitive) to harm

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of deren (weak)
infinitive deren
past singular deerde
past participle gedeerd
infinitive deren
gerund deren n
verbal noun
present tense past tense
1st person singular deer deerde
2nd person sing. (jij) deert deerde
2nd person sing. (u) deert deerde
2nd person sing. (gij) deert deerde
3rd person singular deert deerde
plural deren deerden
subjunctive sing.1 dere deerde
subjunctive plur.1 deren deerden
imperative sing. deer
imperative plur.1 deert
participles derend gedeerd
1) Archaic.

Related terms[edit]


Galician[edit]

Verb[edit]

deren

  1. third-person plural future subjunctive of dar

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

deren

  1. (relative) whose, of which (genitive of die, both inflected forms of der).
  2. (demonstrative) her, their, the latter's (genitive of die, both inflected forms of der)

Usage notes[edit]

Among unexercised users of formal standard German, one can frequently read or hear dessen when deren would be correct (or occasionally vice versa), since neither of these forms is used in normal vernacular German.

Consider:

  1. Sie haben ihre Freunde und ihren Sohn eingeladen.
    They have invited their friends and their son.

and

  1. Sie haben ihre Freunde und deren Sohn eingeladen.
    They have invited their friends and their son.

The first sentence relates that the family which invites has a son, thus, they invite friends and that son. In respect of the second sentence, the family invites their friends and a son of the invited family. Cognate this behaviour with Russian свой and Russian possessive pronouns.

Declension[edit]

Relative pronoun:

Declension of der
masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative der die das die
genitive dessen deren
younger also: derer
dessen derer
deren
dative dem der dem denen
accusative den die das die

Demonstrative pronoun:

Declension of der
masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative der die das die
genitive dessen deren
younger also: derer
dessen derer
deren
dative dem der dem denen
accusative den die das die

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch *derien, from Proto-Germanic *darjaną.

Verb[edit]

dēren

  1. to harm, to hurt
  2. to hurt emotionally
  3. to damage

Inflection[edit]

Weak
Infinitive dēren
3rd sg. past
3rd pl. past
Past participle
Infinitive dēren
In genitive dērens
In dative dērene
Indicative Present Past
1st singular dēre
2nd singular dēers, dēres
3rd singular dēert, dēret
1st plural dēren
2nd plural dēert, dēret
3rd plural dēren
Subjunctive Present Past
1st singular dēre
2nd singular dēers, dēres
3rd singular dēre
1st plural dēren
2nd plural dēert, dēret
3rd plural dēren
Imperative Present
Singular dēer, dēre
Plural dēert, dēret
Present Past
Participle dērende

Alternative forms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • deren (II)”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • daren”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, 1929
  • deren”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, 1929