rupjš

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Latvian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (dialectal form) rups

Etymology[edit]

From an earlier adjective *rupus (yielding two parallel forms, a yo-stem form that became standard rupjš and an o-stem form that yielded the dialectal variant rups), from Proto-Indo-European *Hrewp- (to pull, to tear, to break) (whence also the adjective raupjš, q.v.). The semantic evolution was probably “to pluck, to tear (e.g., wool, feathers)” > (adj.) “uneven, harsh” (skin, after removing wool, feathers) > “coarse, harsh.” Cognates include Lithuanian rupùs, Serbo-Croatian rȕpa (hole, pit), Old Norse rjúfa (to break, to tear), rauf (cracks, holes), reyfi (shorn wool; uneven, harsh skin), Middle High German rubbelig (uneven, harsh, coarse), Latin rumpere (to break).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

rupjš (def. rupjais, comp. rupjāks, sup. visrupjākais; adv. rupji)

  1. (of mixtures, powder-like substances) coarse, rough (with elements having a relatively large cross section)
    rupja smilts, grants‎ ― coarse sand, gravel
    rupji putraimi, milti‎ ― coarse grits, flour
    rupjais sāls‎ ― coarse salt
    rupjas aveņu ogas‎ ― rough raspberries
    rupjas zvīņas‎ ― coarse (fish) scales
    rupja maize, rupjmaize‎ ― rye bread, brown bread (lit. coarse bread)
  2. (of nets, meshes) coarse (having relatively large holes)
    rupjš siets, tīkls‎ ― coarse sieve, net
  3. (of files) rough (having on its surface relatively wide, deep grooves)
    rupja vīle, rupjvīle‎ ― rough file
  4. (of thread, yarn, hair, fur, also cloth) coarse, thick (having a relatively large cross-section; made of thread, yarn having a relatively large cross-section)
    rupjš diegs‎ ― coarse, thick thread
    rupja dzija‎ ― coarse, thick yarn
    rupja vilna‎ ― coarse wool
    rupja adata‎ ― coarse needle
    rupjš linu audums‎ ― scrim (lit. coarse linen) cloth
    rupjš maiss, krekls, galdauts‎ ― coarse bag, shirt, tablecloth
    rupjas zeķes‎ ― coarse socks
    noslaucīties rupjā dvielī‎ ― to dry oneself with (lit. in) a coarse towel
    aļņa ķermenis klāts ar biezu, rupju apmatojumu‎ ― an elk's body is covered with thick, coarse hair
  5. (of grains) coarse, rough (composed of elements having a relatively large cross-section)
    rupja maluma milti‎ ― rough, coarse grist flour (i.e., flour which contains chaff)
  6. (of skin, surfaces) rough, harsh, unpolished; having bumps and dents on its surface
    rokas man rupjas no darba‎ ― my hands are harsh from work
    rupjš, pelēks papīrs‎ ― harsh, gray paper
    rupjais apmetums‎ ― coarse, harsh plaster
    aligators klāts ar rupju, grumbuļainu ādu‎ ― the alligator is covered by a harsh, rugged skin
  7. (of objects) rough, not refined, not well designed, not completed, of low quality
    šis rupjais dēļu šķirsts‎ ― that rough, coarse wooden chest
    rupjais cirtums‎ ― rough cutting, roughly cut surface
  8. (of sounds) coarse, hollow, low
    rupji smiekli‎ ― coarse laughter
    rupja balss‎ ― coarse, hollow, low voice
    rupjš, rejošs klepus‎ ― coarse, barking cough
  9. (of people, their behavior) rude, offensive, tactless, tough, violent; expressing such features
    Grīslis bija rupjš, nesaticīgs vīrs‎ ― Grīslis was a rude, irritable man
    rupjš joks‎ ― rude joke
    rupjš izteiciens‎ ― harsh language
    rupja mute‎ ― harsh, rude mouth
    rupji vārdi‎ ― harsh, rude words
    rupjš cīņas paņēmiens‎ ― tough, violent fighting technique
    rupja, netaktiska izturēšanās‎ ― rude, tactless behavior
  10. (of errors, irregularities, etc.) gross, big (which deviates strongly from the truth, from accepted norms, etc.)
    rupja kļūda‎ ― gross, big mistake, blunder
    rupjš disciplīnas pārkāpums‎ ― big breach of discipline
    rupjš apmelojums‎ ― gross, shameless calumny, slander
    ticēt rupjiem meliem‎ ― to believe gross, big lies
  11. (of work) harsh, tough (physical, heavy and repetitive)
    rupjais darbs‎ ― harsh, tough work

Declension[edit]

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Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “rupjš”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7