mīksts

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See also: miksts

Latvian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the past participle of an old (still dialectally attested) verb mīkt, mīkst (to become soft), from Proto-Baltic *mink-, from Proto-Indo-European *menk-, *mn̥k- (to knead, to crush). The original meaning referred to the final state of things that one kneads or crushes (compare English verb to squash and adjective squashy). Cognates include Lithuanian mìnkštas, Old Church Slavonic мѧкъкъ (mękŭkŭ), Russian мягкий (mjágkij), Belarusian мякки (mjákki), Ukrainian м'який (m'jakýj), Bulgarian мек (mek), Czech měkký, Polish miękki.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

mīksts (def. mīkstais, comp. mīkstāks, sup. vismīkstākais; adv. mīksti)

  1. (of objects, substances) soft (relatively easy to bend, split, crush, etc.; made of such materials, substances)
    mīksta mīkla, masasoft dough, mass
    mīksta koksnesoftwood
    mīksts metālssoft metal
    grāmata mīkstos vākos — paperback (lit. book in soft cover)
    mīksts zīmulissoft pencil (with lead that wears out quickly)
    gumija sasilstot kļūst mīksta — rubber becomes soft when heated
    mīksta augsnesoft soil
    mīksts māls, sniegssoft clay, snow
    mīksts ceļšsoft path
    mīkstais arumssoft plowing
  2. (of fabric, leather) soft (flexible, not resistant, not strong, not twisted)
    mīksts audums, paklājs, kažokssoft fabric, carpet, coat
    mīksta vate, aitādasoft sheepskin
    mīksti cimdisoft gloves
    mīkstas kurpessoft shoes
    mīksts pavedienssoft (not twisted) thread
  3. (of furniture, cushions, etc.) soft (not resistant to pressure; pleasant, comfortable)
    mīksts dīvāns, spilvenssoft sofa, pillow
    mīksts krēsls, matracissoft chair, matras
    mīkstas mēbelessoft furniture
  4. (of means of transportation) provided with soft seats or beds
    mīkstais vagonssoft train car
    mēs braucām naktī ar mīksto autobusu no Debinas — we traveled at night with the soft bus from Debina
  5. (of folds in clothes) soft, not sharp
    mīkstas krokas, mīksti krokojumisoft folds
  6. (of events, processes, actions) soft (happening without much resistance)
    gājēju kājas mīksti grimst sniegā — the feet of the passers-by sink softly in the snow
  7. (of living tissues, body parts, plants) soft (relatively easy to bend, squeeze)
    mīkstie' audi soft tissues
    mīksts kaulssoft bone
    mīkstās aukslējassoft palate
    mīksts stublājs, graudssoft stem, grain
    mīkstie kviešisoft wheat
    mīksta sūnasoft moss
  8. (of skin) soft (not hard, not harsh)
    mīksta sejas ādasoft facial skin
    rokas tev ir gluži mīkstas — your hands are really soft
  9. (of hair or feathers, of animals having hair or feathers) soft (really delicate, fine)
    mīksti matisoft hair
    mīksts' cālēns soft chick, poussin
    kucēna mīkstā spalva — a puppy's soft fur
  10. (colloquial, of people, body parts) plump, slightly overweight
    konditorejā aiz letes sēdēja un adīja apaļa, mīksta dāma — in the patisserie behind the counter (there) was a round, soft (= overweight) lady sitting and knitting
  11. (of food) soft (easy to bite and chew)
    mīksta gaļa, maizesoft meat, bread
    mīksts siers, ābolssoft cheese, apple
    mīksta olasoft egg (only slightly boiled)
  12. (of people, their character, will) soft, weak
    mans raksturs vēl nav norūdījies, tas vēl mīksts kā vasks — my character is not yet seasoned, it is still soft as wax
    priekšsēdētāja vietnieks tomēr izrādījās par mīkstu un neuzņēmīgu radikāliem pasākumiem — the vice-president, however, turned out to be soft and resistant to radical measures
  13. (of behavior, actions) soft (relatively moderate, not harsh, forgiving, gentle)
    mīksts sodssoft penalty, punishment
    atrast mīkstākus vārdus — to find softer words
  14. (of sounds) soft, low
    mīksti soļisoft steps
    mīksts, sievišķīgs tenorssoft, feminine tenor
  15. (of lights) soft, dim, not bright
    plaša un spilgta bija šī aina rietošās saules mīkstajā gaismā — spacious and bright was this picture in the soft light of the setting sun
  16. (of weather) mild, soft, pleasant (especially if unusual}}
    mīksta ziemamild winter
    mīksts vējšsoft wind
  17. (of lines, forms, lights) soft, not sharp, not clear, dim
    Anitas ēnas mīkstas līnijas — the soft lines of Anita's shadow
    mīksta tumsa, krēslasoft darkness, twilight
    māksliniekam raksturīgas arī mīkstas, smalkām niansēm bagatās pārejas no tumšā uz gaišo — typical of (this) artist are also soft transitions from dark to light, full of subtle nuances
  18. (of water) soft (containing little or no salts, usually of calcium and magnesium)
    vislabāk mazgāt matus mīksta ūdeņi — it is best to wash one's hair in soft water
  19. (rare, of sleep) soft, calm (syn. ciešs)
    mīksts miegs nāca šonakt Silmežam — a soft sleep came tonight to Silmežs

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

  • (of "soft", including "soft water"): ciets

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “mīksts” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.