文明

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Chinese[edit]

Chinese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia zh

simpl. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (文明, reconstructed)
Character (文), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 明 (4)
Final: 文
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 無分切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/mɨun/ /mi̯uən/ /miuən/ /miun/ /mun/ /mĭuən/ /miuən/
Character (明), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 明 (4)
Final: 庚
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 武兵切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/mɣiæŋ/ /mi̯ɐŋ/ /miɐŋ/ /mɯiaŋ/ /miajŋ/ /mĭɐŋ/ /miaŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (文明, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
wén ‹ mjun › /*məә[n]/ ornate
míng ‹ mjaeng › /*mraŋ/ bright

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13015 1 /*mɯn/
9188 0 /*mraŋ/

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page as described here.

Noun[edit]

文明

  1. civilization

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (文明):


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 2

Noun[edit]

文明 (hiragana ぶんめい, romaji bunmei)

  1. civilization
  2. Bunmei Era