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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
個-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  + phonetic 

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人田十口 (OWJR), four-corner 26200, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 107, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 758
  • Dae Jaweon: page 228, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 178, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+500B

Chinese[edit]

simpl.
trad.

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  + phonetic .

The semantics may have developed along the grammaticalisation process "bamboo stalk" () > "piece, item" > "classifier for every category of noun" > "possessive particle, generic particle". If so, it would then possibly be cognate with 竿 ("bamboo, rod"). Compare Tibetan མཁར་བ (mkhar ba), འཁར་བ ('khar ba, walking stick, staff) and Thai ก้าน (stem, stalk).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (個), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 見 (28)
Final: 歌
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 古賀切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑH/ /kɑH/ /kɑH/ /kɑH/ /kaH/ /kɑH/ /kɑH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ kaH › /*kˤa[r]-s/ piece, item

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4208 1 /*kaːls/ 見儀禮鄭注

Definitions[edit]

  1. piece, item; individual
  2. size, height
  3. separate, respective; separately, individually
    • 個別个别 ("individual, separate; some, a couple of")
  4. single, alone
  5. (dialectal) one
  6. The generic classifier. Used with nouns lacking specific classifiers.
  7. Alternative classifier, for nouns having specific classifiers. Often colloquial and regional. Usage varies greatly between different topolects.
  8. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and numbers, showing that the following numbers are approximate, not accurate.
  9. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and its object or complement, adding a sense of ease, swiftness and one-offness to the action.
  10. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle used after .
  11. (dialectal Mandarin) Particle used in some time-related words.
  12. (obsolete, Wu, Xiang, Gan, dialectal Cantonese, dialectal Min) (= ) this; that
  13. (Wu) Word-initial particle, serving as the definite article.
  14. (obsolete, Cantonese, Wu) (C = , W = ) Possessive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin .
  15. (dialectal) Sentence-final declarative, affirmative, or prohibitive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin , .

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (個):


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gae) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer kae)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, cái)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]