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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
個-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  + phonetic 

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人田十口 (OWJR), four-corner 26200, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 107, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 758
  • Dae Jaweon: page 228, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 178, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+500B

Chinese[edit]

simpl.
trad.

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  + phonetic .

The semantics may have developed along the grammaticalisation process "bamboo stalk" () > "piece, item" > "classifier for every category of noun" > "possessive particle, generic particle". If so, it would then possibly be cognate with 竿 ("bamboo, rod"). Compare Tibetan མཁར་བ (mkhar ba), འཁར་བ ('khar ba, walking stick, staff) and Thai ก้าน (stem, stalk).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (個), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 見 (28)
Final: 歌
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 古賀切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑH/ /kɑH/ /kɑH/ /kɑH/ /kaH/ /kɑH/ /kɑH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ kaH › /*kˤa[r]-s/ piece, item

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4208 1 /*kaːls/ 見儀禮鄭注

Definitions[edit]

  1. piece, item; individual
  2. size, height
  3. separate, respective; separately, individually
    • 個別个别 ("individual, separate; some, a couple of")
  4. single, alone
  5. (dialectal) one
  6. The generic classifier. Used with nouns lacking specific classifiers.
  7. Alternative classifier, for nouns having specific classifiers. Often colloquial and regional. Usage varies greatly between different topolects.
  8. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and numbers, showing that the following numbers are approximate, not accurate.
    一下公里不在話下 [MSC, trad.]
    一下公里不在话下 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā yīxià pǎo ge liǎng sān gōnglǐ dōu bùzàihuàxià. [Pinyin]
    Running two or three kilometers in one go is a piece of cake for him.
    他們 [MSC, trad.]
    他们 [MSC, simp.]
    Tāmen liǎ jiù chà ge yī liǎng suì. [Pinyin]
    The age difference between them is only about one or two years.
  9. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and its object or complement, adding a sense of ease, swiftness and one-offness to the action.
    休息休息 [MSC, trad.]
    休息休息 [MSC, simp.]
    chī ge fàn, xǐ ge zǎo, xiūxi xiūxi [Pinyin]
    have some food, have a shower and have some rest
    我們昨天近況 [MSC, trad.]
    我们昨天近况 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen zuótiān jiàn le ge miàn, liáo le liáo jìnkuàng. [Pinyin]
    We met yesterday, and chatted about how we've been recently.
  10. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle used after .
    那些現在回憶起來還是記憶猶新 [MSC, trad.]
    那些现在回忆起来还是记忆犹新 [MSC, simp.]
    Nàxiē ge nián de shì xiànzài huíyì qǐlái háishì jìyìyóuxīn. [Pinyin]
    It feels like yesterday when I reminisce about those stories in the past.
  11. (dialectal Mandarin) Particle used in some time-related words.
  12. (obsolete, Wu, Xiang, Gan, dialectal Cantonese, dialectal Min) (= ) this; that
    / [Shanghainese]  ―  this person
    鴨子 / 鸭子 [Shanghainese]  ―  This duck hasn't been cooked long enough for it to become tender.
  13. (Wu) Word-initial particle, serving as the definite article.
    今朝為啥 / 今朝为啥 [Shanghainese]  ―  Why hasn't that guy come today?
  14. (obsolete, Cantonese, Wu) (C = , W = ) Possessive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin .
    小囡 / 小囡 [Shanghainese]  ―  my child
    屋企先生乜嘢 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    屋企先生乜嘢 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    Zyu6 hoeng2 nei5 nguk1 kei2 go3 can4 sin1 saang1 hai6 mat1 je5 jan4 lai4 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Who is that Mr. Chan that lives at your house?
  15. (dialectal) Sentence-final declarative, affirmative, or prohibitive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin , .
    標語 [Shanghainese, trad.]
    标语 [Shanghainese, simp.]
    I didn't write that slogan.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (個):


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gae) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer kae)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, cái)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]