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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
了-bw.png
Stroke order
了-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 6 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓弓 (NN), four-corner 17207)

  1. to finish
  2. particle of completed action

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 85, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 226
  • Dae Jaweon: page 173, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E86

Cantonese[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(Jyutping liu5, Yale liu5)


Hakka[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(POJ líau (liau2), Guangdong liau3; liau3, le3 [Hailu, Siyan], Hagfa Pinyim liau3)

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. finish, complete

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana さとる, romaji Satoru)

  1. A male given name

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ryo>yo) (hangeul [[>]], revised ryo>yo, McCune-Reischauer ryo>yo, Yale lyo>yo)


Mandarin[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Hanzi[edit]

(Pinyin le (le5), liǎo (liao3), Wade-Giles le5, liao3)

Pronunciation[edit]

Mandarin (Standard Chinese, Beijing)
Pinyin le
Zhuyin ㄌㄜ˙
IPA (key) /lə/
Audio
(file)

Particle[edit]

(traditional and simplified, Pinyin le)

  1. Used after a verb, indicate perfective aspect (action completion).
    Most of the time, 了 is translated by a past tense. But it can also indicate that one action is completed before another.
    • Genesis 3:11
      耶和华说,谁告诉你赤身露体呢?莫非你吃了我吩咐你不可吃的那树上的果子吗?
      Yēhéhuá shuō , shuí gàosu nǐ chìshēnlòutǐ ne , mòfēi nǐ chī le wǒ fēnfu nǐ bùkĕ chī de nà shù shàng de guǒzi ma .
      And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?
    我吃这个苹果。 wǒ chī le zhège píngguǒ.
    I ate the apple.
    你吃以后,告诉我。nǐ chī le yǐhòu , gàosù wǒ.
    Tell me when you are done eating.
  2. Used at the end of a sentence, indicate a change of state.
    It can be translated to 'now','already' or 'not anymore'.
    我会说中文。 wǒ huì shuō zhōngwén le.
    I can speak Chinese now. (I couldn't before)
    我吃饭。wǒ chīfàn le.
    I've (already) eaten.
    没有纸。méiyǒu zhǐ le
    There's no paper anymore.
  3. Used after a verb and followed by an amount of time, express duration
    他在北京住两年。 tā zài běijīng zhù le liǎng nián
    He lived in Beijing for two years.

Pronunciation[edit]

Mandarin (Standard Chinese, Beijing)
Pinyin liǎo
Zhuyin ㄌㄧㄠˇ
IPA (key) /li̯ɑʊ̯²¹⁴⁻²¹⁽⁴⁾/
Audio
(file)

Verb[edit]

(traditional and simplified, Pinyin liǎo)

  1. To finish

(simplified, Pinyin liǎo, traditional )

  1. To understand
    了解 liǎojiě (To understand,to realize )

References[edit]


Middle Chinese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(*leǔ)


Min Nan[edit]

Verb[edit]

(traditional and simplified, POJ liáu)

  1. also

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(liễu)