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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
了-bw.png
Stroke order
了-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Pictogram (象形) – an image of a baby wrapped in a blanket, with only the head visible. Compare with , where the arms are visible.

Han character[edit]

(radical 6 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓弓 (NN), four-corner 17207)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 85, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 226
  • Dae Jaweon: page 173, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E86

Chinese[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (了), Pronunciation (1/1)

Initial: 來 (37)
Final: 蕭
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 盧鳥切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/leuX/ /lieuX/ /leuX/ /leuX/ /lɛwX/ /lieuX/ /leuX/

Particle[edit]

  1. (Beginning Mandarin) Used after a verb, indicate perfective aspect (action completion)
  2. Used at the end of a sentence, indicate a change of state.
  3. (Used after a verb and followed by an amount of time, express duration) for

Usage note[edit]

  • (perfective aspect particle):
Most of the time, 了 is translated by a past tense. But it can also indicate that one action is completed before another.
  1. 以後告訴 [trad.] / 以后告诉 [simp.]Nǐ chī le yǐhòu, gàosu wǒ. [Pinyin] — Tell me when you are done eating.


  • (change of state particle):
When used as the change of state particle, 了 can be translated by now, already or not anymore.
  1. 中文 [trad.] / 中文 [simp.]Wǒ huì shuō zhōngwén le. [Pinyin] — I can speak Chinese now. (I couldn't before)
  1. 吃飯 [trad.] / 吃饭 [simp.]Wǒ chīfàn le. [Pinyin] — I've eaten (already).
  1. 沒有 [trad.] / 没有 [simp.]Méiyǒu zhǐ le. [Pinyin] — There's no paper anymore.


In a question, 了 is put before the particle .

Pronunciation[edit]



simpl.
trad.

Verb[edit]

  1. To finish

  1. To understand
    瞭解了解 (liǎojiě) (to understand, to realize )

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. finish, complete

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana さとる, romaji Satoru)

  1. A male given name

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ryo>yo) (hangeul >, revised ryo>yo, McCune-Reischauer ryo>yo, Yale lyo>yo)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(liễu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.