พระ

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Thai[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Khmer bra or Angkorian Old Khmer braḥ, braḥh, brah (literally distinguished; divine; excellent; holy; sacred; superior; etc), likely from Sanskrit वर (vara, best; excellent; foremost; holy; precious; top; valuable; etc); see Khmer ព្រះ (prĕəh) for more.

Compare Old Khmer vraḥ, vraḥh, vrah, vrahh, vrāʼaḥ, brā; Angkorian Old Khmer vraḥ, vraḥha, vraḥh, vrah, vras, vrāḥ.

Cognate with Modern Khmer ព្រះ (prĕəh); Lao ພະ (pha), ພຣະ (pha ra). Compare also Burmese ဘုရား (bhu.ra:), Old Javanese phra, Javanese bra.

Pronunciation[edit]

Orthographicพระ
b r a
Phonemicพฺระ
b ̥ r a
RomanizationPaiboonprá
Royal Institutephra
(standard) IPA(key)/pʰraʔ˦˥/

Noun[edit]

พระ (prá)

  1. god, deity; priest, royal person; also used as an honorific or term of address.
  2. representation, as image, statue, sculpture, etc, of such person.
  3. used as an honorific for or term of address to anyone or anything relating to a god, deity, priest, or royal person, or to a representation of such person.
  4. (historical) the Thai noble rank above หลวง (lǔuang) and below พระยา (prá-yaa); holder of this rank.
  5. male protagonist, as in a literary work, drama, etc.

Usage notes[edit]

When used as the honorific according to the third definition, the term may be combined with other terms to form more elegancy. Examples are:

Terms Literal meaning Application Notes
Gods High priests Royals
พระบรมมหาราช (prá-bɔɔ-rom-má-hǎa-râat-chá-) sacred, supreme, great, royal Yes check.svg For monarchs
พระบรม (prá-bɔɔ-rom-má-) sacred, supreme Yes check.svg For monarchs
พระบรมราช (prá-bɔɔ-rom-má-râat-chá-) sacred, supreme, royal Yes check.svg For monarchs
พระบวร (prá-bɔɔ-wɔɔ-rá-) sacred, exalted Yes check.svg For princes of the Front Palace
พระบวรราช (prá-bɔɔ-wɔɔ-rá-râat-chá) sacred, exalted, royal Yes check.svg For princes of the Front Palace
พระปรม (prá-bpɔɔ-rá-má-) sacred, supreme Yes check.svg For monarchs
พระพุทธ (prá-pút-tá-) sacred, Buddhist Yes check.svg Yes check.svg For Buddhas and Buddhist high priests
พระมหา (prá-má-hǎa-) sacred, great Yes check.svg Yes check.svg Yes check.svg
พระมหาราช (prá-má-hǎa-râat-chá-) sacred, great, royal Yes check.svg
พระมหาสมณ (prá-má-hǎa-sà-má-ná-) sacred, great, ecclesiastical Yes check.svg
พระราช (prá-râat-chá-) sacred, royal Yes check.svg For high-ranking royals
พระวร (prá-wɔɔ-rá-) sacred, excellent Yes check.svg For high-ranking royals
พระสมณ (prá-sà-má-ná-) sacred, ecclesiastical Yes check.svg
พระสุร (prá-sù-rá-) sacred, celestial Yes check.svg For high-ranking royals

See also[edit]