Appendix:Puroik comparative vocabulary list

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The following list of 181 words in three Puroik dialects, in addition to Proto-Puroik (the reconstructed proto-language of the Puroik lects), is from Lieberherr (2015: 280-286). Lieberherr (2015)[1] reconstructs Proto-Puroik, drawing data from the Chayangtajo dialect and the newly described Kojo-Rojo and Bulu dialects. Forms from the Rawa and Saria dialects have also been included.[1]

List[edit]

Gloss Puroik
(Bulu)
Puroik
(Kojo-Rojo)
Puroik
(Chayangtajo)
Proto-Puroik
1SG (I) guu goo goo *goo
2SG (you, sg.) naa (naŋ) naa *naŋ (?)
3SG (he, she) vɛɛ wai wɛɛ *vai
1PL (we) (g-rii) gə-nii g-rei *gə-ńei (?)
2PL (you, pl.) (na-rii) na-nii na-rei *na-ńei (?)
1DU (we two) gə-se-niʔ/(gə-he-niʔ) gə-se-nii gə-sɛ-nii *gə-se-niʔ (?)
imperfective suffix -na -na -na *-na
pretemporal -ryila -ruila -ruila *-ruila
one [tyi] [kjuu] [hui] *?
two niʔ (nii) nii *niʔ
three ɨm ɻɨm ɯk *ɨm̄ (?)
four vii wɻei wɻei *vɻei
five wuu woo wuu *woo (?)
six rəʔ rəʔ rək *rək
seven mə-ljɛɛ jei ljɛɛ *mə-ljai
eight mə-ljao jau (laa) *mə-ljaa
nine duNgii duŋgɻee doŋgɻɛɛ *doŋ-gjee (?)
ten suɛN ʃuan suaik *suan̄ (?)
above a-tʃaN a-tʃjaŋ a-tʃuaŋ *a-tʃuaŋ (?)
alive a-seN a-sən a-sik *a-sen̄
ant (dʒamdʒuʔ) gamgɻuʔ gɻɛŋgɻo *gjamgjoʔ
awaken (intr.) ʒao ʒau jaa *jaa
bamboo (edible) ma-bjao mə-bɻau mə-bɻaa *ma-bjaa
before bui bui bue *bui
belly (exterior) a-ɬyi-buN hui-buŋ a-ɬue-buk *a-ɬui-buŋ̄
belly (interior) a-ɬyi a-hui a-ɬue *a-ɬui
bird pə-duu pə-doo pə-dou *pə-dou (?)
bite tɔɔ tua tua *tua
bitter a-tʃaʔ a-tʃuaʔ a-tʃjaa *a-tʃuaʔ (?)
black a-hjɛN a-hjeĩ a-hjɛ̃ *a-hjaĩ
blow fuu fuu (fuk) *fuu
blue a-pii a-pii a-pii *a-pii
blood a-hui a-fui a-hue *a-hui (?)
bone a-zɛN a-zan a-zaik *a-zan̄
bow lɨɨ lei lei *lei (?)
branch a-kjɛɛ hɻɨn-kɻei hɻeŋ-kɻɛɛ *kjai
breast (female) a-njɛɛ a-njei a-njɛɛ *a-njai
breathe ʒuu ʒuu joo *joo
bridge (not hanging) ka-tyiN ka-tun ka-tuik *ka-tun̄
brother (younger) a-nɔɔ a-nua anua *a-nua
burn (transitive) rii rii rii *rii
can muɛN muan muaiŋ *muan
cane rii rei rei *rei
cave wuʔ oo *woʔ
chicken [tʃaʔ] [takjuu] [səkuu]
child a-dəə a-doo a-dou *a-dou (?)
cloth ɛʔ aiʔ aik (Rawa at) *at
crazy a-bjao a-bɻaa bɻaa-bo *abjaa
cry (tʃɛʔ) tʃap tʃjap *tʃjap (?)
cut (hit with dao) pɛN pan paik *pan̄
cut (without
leaving the blade)
ii *iʔ
day a-nii a-nii a-rii *a-ńii
die ii ii ii *ii
dig tʃuʔ tʃuʔ tʃoo *tʃoʔ
do/make [tsaʔ] [ʒou] [kaik]
door haN-wuiN ha-wun tʃuk-wuik *HOUSE-wun̄
down buu buu buu *buu
dream baN baŋ bak *baŋ̄
drink in in [riŋ] *in
dry a-wuɛN a-wuan a-wuaik *awuan̄
ear a-kuiN a-kun a-kuik *a-kun̄
eat tʃii tʃii tʃii *tʃii
extinguish (intr.) [gɛʔ] biʔ bik (Rawa bit) *bit
existential copula [wɛɛ] [wai] wɛɛ
eye a-kəm a-kəm a-kək *a-kəm̄
fall (from a height) ɬuʔ huʔ (ɬuʔ) ɬjok-lo *ɬuk (?)
fart waiʔ wai wɛɛ *waiʔ
far a-tʃoi a-tʃai a-tʃjɛɛ *a-tʃuai (?)
fat/grease a-ʒɔɔ a-zjaa a-zua *azua (?)
female/mother a-mɔɔ a-mua a-mua *a-mua
fingernail (ageʔ gə-sɨn) gei-sin geisik *ge-sin̄
fire bɛɛ bai bɛɛ *bai
firewood ʃiN hɻɨn hɻeŋ *sjen (?)
fish [tʃɨi] [tʃui] [kahuaŋ]
flow nyɛ nuai ruɛ *ńuai
flower a-buɛN hɻɨn-buan mə-buaik *buan̄
food mə-luɛN mə-luan mə-luaik *mə-luan̄
frog rəʔ rəʔ rəə *rəʔ
fruit ʃiN-wɛɛ hɻɨn-wai roŋ-wɛɛ *wai
full ljɛɛ jei ljɛɛ *ljai
full/satiated mɨŋ moŋ moŋ *moŋ
garlic (Allium hookeri) daN daŋ dak *daŋ̄
ghost mə-ɬao mə-hau (mə-ɬau) mə-ɬaa *mə-ɬaa
give taN taŋ taŋ *taŋ
green a-rjɛɛ a-rjei a-rjɛɛ *a-rjai
guts a-ɬyi-rin a-hui-rin a-ɬue-riŋ *a-ɬui-rin
hair (on body) a-mɨn a-mən a-muiŋ *a-mun
hair (on head) kə-zaN (kə-zjaŋ) kə-zak *kə-zaŋ̄
hand/arm a-geʔ a-geiʔ a-geik (Rawa gət) *a-gət
head a-kuN a-kuŋ-bəə a-kok-bəə *akoŋ̄
heart a-luN-bəə a-luŋ-bəə a-lok-bəə *a-loŋ̄-bəə
hold in mouth mom ? mom *mom
husband a-wui a-wui a-wue *a-wui
ill/sick naN naŋ raŋ *ńaŋ
itch ɔɔ a-wua a-wua *a-wua
kill [wɛʔ] aiʔ aik (Rawa at) *at
knife (machete) tʃii tʃee tʃee *tʃee (?)
know dɛN dan daik *dan̄
leaf a-ləp (hɻɨn-jəp) a-lək *ljəp
leech [pa-]wɛʔ [pə-]waiʔ ka-waik (Rawa pəwat) *ka-wat
left side pa-fii pua-fii pua-fee *puafee (?)
leg a-lɛɛ a-lai a-lɛɛ *lai
lick ljaʔ jaa vjaa *?
light a-tɔɔ a-tua a-tua *a-tua
listen nɨŋ nuŋ roŋ *ńoŋ
liver a-pjiN a-pjin a-pjik *a-pjin̄
long a-pjaN a-pɻaŋ a-pɻaŋ *a-pjaŋ
louse (head) [ʃiʔ] [hɻɛ̃] [pɻɛɛ] *?
male/father a-pɔɔ a-pua a-pua *apua
man a-fuu a-foo a-fuu *a-fuu (?)
marrow (a-ɬyiN) a-hin a-ɬiŋ *a-ɬin
meat [ʃii] [mai] [mərjek] *?
monkey (macaque) [məraŋ] [səduŋ] [məzii]
mortar sətsəm tʃuŋtʃəm tʃjuŋtʃək *tʃuŋ-tʃəm̄
mouth a-səm a-səm a-sək *a-səm̄
mushroom mɨŋ məŋ məŋ *məŋ
mute/stupid bloʔ bloʔ blok *blok
name a-bjɛN a-bɻɛn a-bɻɛŋ *a-bjɛn
near a-nyi a-nui a-nui *a-nui (?)
neck kə-tuN-rin tuŋ-rin kə-tuŋ *kə-tuŋ
negation ba- ba- ba- *ba-
new (of things) a-fɛN a-fan a-faik *a-fan̄
night/dark a-tʃeN a-tʃen a-tʃik *a-tʃen̄ (?)
nose a-puŋ a-puŋ a-pok *a-poŋ̄
old (of things) a-tsɛN a-tʃjen a-tʃaik *a-tʃjan̄
path lim lim lik (Saria dialect) *lim̄
penis a-lɔʔ a-luaʔ a-lua *a-luaʔ
person [prin] bii bii *bii
pig [waʔ] [dui] [mədou] *?
pillow ka-kəm koŋ-kəm ko-kəm *koŋ̄ -kəm (?)
Puroik (prin-dəə) purun puruik *purun̄
pull ryi rui rue *rui
quiver zəp zəp zək *zəp
ripe a-min a-min a-miŋ *a-min
rot ʃam hɻam hjap *sjam̄ (?)
run rin ren rik *rin̄
sago flour bii bee-mo bee *bee (?)
sago club (tool) waN waŋ wak *waŋ̄
sago pick (front part) kjuʔ kɻuʔ kɻok *kjok
scratch bjuʔ bɻuʔ bɻoo *bjoʔ
sew pin pin piŋ *pin
shade a-ɬim a-him a-ɬəp *a-ɬim̄ (?)
shelf (over fireplace) rap rap rak *rap
shoulder pa-tɨŋ pua-tuŋ pua-tok *pua-toŋ̄
shy bii-wɛN bii-wan bii-waik *biiwan̄
sit [rɨɨ] [dʒao] [tuŋ]
skin a-kuʔ a-kɨʔ a-kəə *a-kuʔ (?)
sky ha-mɨŋ məŋ kə-məŋ *ha/kə-məŋ
sleep rəm rəm rəm *rəm
sleepy rəm-bin rəm-bin rəm-biŋ *rəm-bin
smell nam nam naŋ *nam
smoke bɛ-kɨɨ bai-kəə bɛɛ-kɨɨ *baikɨɨ (?)
son-in-law a-bɔʔ buaʔ a-bua *buaʔ
stand tʃin tʃin tʃiŋ *tʃin
star [haNwaiʔ] [hadaŋ] [hagaik]
stone ka-lɨŋ ka-huŋ (ka-ɬuŋ) [kəbɻaa] *ka-ɬuŋ (?)
sun hamii hamii krii *PFX-ńii
sweet a-pin a-pin a-piŋ *a-pin
swell pən pən pəik *pən̄
taro tʃjaʔ tʃjaʔ tʃua *tʃuaʔ
tasty/savory (a-jim) a-rjem a-rjep *a-rjem̄
that tɛɛ tai tɛɛ *tai
thick (book) a-pən a-pən a-pik *apən̄ (?)
thin (book) a-tsap (a-tʃjam) a-tʃap *a-tʃjam̄
this hɨŋ həŋ həŋ *həŋ
tongue a-lyi jui (a-rue) *a-lui (?)
tooth kə-tɔN tuaŋ kə-tuaŋ *kə-tuaŋ
thorn mə-zuN mə-ʒuŋ kə-zjoŋ *mə/kə-zoŋ
up kuN kuŋ kuŋ *kuŋ
Urtica fibres ʃaN hɻaŋ hɻak *sjaŋ̄
vomit muɛʔ muai muɛ *muaiʔ
war mɔʔ muaʔ mua *muaʔ
warm a-ləm a-ləm a-ləp *a-ləm̄
water kɔɔ kua kua *kua
weave (on loom) ɛʔ-rɔʔ ai-ruaʔ aikrua *at-ruaʔ
wet a-ʃam a-hɻam a-hjap *a-hjam̄ (?)
what hɛɛ hai [hii]
white a-rjuN a-rjuŋ a-rjuŋ *a-rjuŋ
wife a-ʒuu a-zjoo a-zou *a-zjoo (?)
wing a-ʒuiN a-ʒun a-juik *a-jun̄
woman [məruu] a-mui a-mui *a-mui

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Lieberherr, Ismael. 2015. A progress report on the historical phonology and affiliation of Puroik. North East Indian Linguistics (NEIL), 7. Canberra, Australian National University: Asia-Pacific Linguistics Open Access.
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