Wiktionary:Semantic relations

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There are several different kinds of semantic relations and at least the following ones are relevant to Wiktionary. Terms that are semantically related to a given term can be included both at the term’s page and at a Thesaurus page.


Relation Description Section
Synonymy Each listed synonym denotes the same as this entry. ====Synonyms====
Antonymy Each listed antonym denotes the opposite of this entry. ====Antonyms====
Hypernymy Each listed hypernym is superordinate to this entry; This entry’s referent is a kind of that denoted by listed hypernym. ====Hypernyms====
Hyponymy Each listed hyponym is subordinate to this entry; Each listed hyponym’s referent is a kind of that denoted by this entry. ====Hyponyms====
Meronymy Each listed meronym denotes part of this entry’s referent. ====Meronyms====
Holonymy Each listed holonym has this entry’s referent as a part of itself; this entry’s referent is part of that of each listed holonym. ====Holonyms====
Troponymy Each listed troponym denotes a particular way to do this entry’s referent. ====Troponyms====
Coordinate term Each listed coordinate term shares a hypernym with this entry. ====Coordinate terms====
Otherwise related Each listed “otherwise related” term semantically relates to this entry. ====See also====

Synonymy[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Definition: Each listed synonym denotes the same as this entry.
The equivalence may be less than perfect (cognitive synonymy) but should pass the practical test that "often when people say X they are referring to a thing that term Y also often refers to"; this may exclude some plesionyms, but this test allows for some variability in what "not everyone considers to be wholly differentiated."
Properties: symmetric and reflexive
Section: ====Synonyms====

Synonymy is a symmetric and reflexive relation.

Examples[edit]

  • pretty and attractive are synonyms
  • sick and ill are synonyms
  • {{synonym of|en|ill}} produces Synonym of ill
  • {{sense|unwell of health}} produces (unwell of health):, useful for disambiguating between synonyms for a partial sense.

Usage[edit]

====Synonyms====
* {{l|en|synonym}} (allows language-specific link)
* [[synonym]] (also acceptable)

There is also another method to show synonyms, under each definition sense; see it at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Synonyms.

Antonymy[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Definition: Each listed antonym denotes the opposite of this entry.
Properties: symmetric
Section: ====Antonyms====
Template: {{antonyms}}, as an alternative to listing synonyms in a separate section.

Antonymy is a symmetric relation.

Examples[edit]

Usage[edit]

====Antonyms====
* {{l|en|antonym}} (allows language-specific link)
* [[antonym]] (also acceptable)

Hypernymy[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Definition: Each listed hypernym is superordinate to this entry. This entry’s referent is (one of) the kind(s) of things each hypernym refers to.
Properties: transitive
Section: ====Hypernyms====

Hypernymy is a transitive relation.

Examples[edit]

Usage[edit]

====Hypernyms====
* {{l|en|hypernym}} (allows language-specific link)
* [[hypernym]] (also acceptable)

Hyponymy[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Definition: Each listed hyponym is subordinate to this entry. Each hyponym refers to a specific kind of the thing described by this entry.
Properties: transitive
Section: ====Hyponyms====

Hyponymy is a transitive relation.

Examples[edit]

Usage[edit]

====Hyponyms====
* {{l|en|hyponym}} (allows language-specific link)
* [[hyponym]] (also acceptable)

Meronymy[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Definition: Each listed meronym denotes part of this entry’s referent.
Properties: transitive
Section: ====Meronyms====

Meronymy is a transitive relation.

Examples[edit]

Usage[edit]

====Meronym====
* {{l|en|meronym}} (allows language-specific link)
* [[meronym]] (also acceptable)

Holonymy[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Definition: Each listed holonym has this entry’s referent as a part of itself; this entry’s referent is part of each listed holonym.
Properties: transitive
Section: ====Holonyms====

Holonymy is a transitive relation.

Examples[edit]

Usage[edit]

====Holonyms====
* {{l|en|holonym}} (allows language-specific link)
* [[holonym]] (also acceptable)

Troponymy[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Definition: Each listed troponym denotes a particular way to do this entry’s referent.
Properties: transitive
Section: ====Troponyms====

Troponymy is a transitive relation.

Examples[edit]

Usage[edit]

====Troponyms====
* {{l|en|troponym}} (allows language-specific link)
* [[troponym]] (also acceptable)

Coordinate term[edit]

Definition: Each listed coordinate term shares a hypernym with this entry.
Properties: symmetric and reflexive
Section: ====Coordinate terms====
Template: {{coordinate terms}}, as an alternative to listing coordinate terms in a separate section.

Most coordinate terms should not be added to this section. They should be added as categories instead. Only words that don’t belong in any other sections and are strongly related should be here.

Examples[edit]

Usage[edit]

[[Category:Category of shared hypernym]]
or
====Coordinate terms====
* {{l|en|coordinate term}} (allows language-specific link)
* [[coordinate term]] (also acceptable)

Otherwise related[edit]

Definition: Each listed “otherwise related” term semantically relates to this entry.
Section: ====See also====

If the semantic relation is none of the above (such as, for example, plesionymic, such that it is partially overlapping on a semantic field but with important distinctions), or if you don't know exactly how a word is semantically related to the word defined by the entry you are editing, please add it to this section. However, since almost all words are semantically related to each other on some (sufficiently remote) abstract level, please use your own judgement on whether somebody possibly would find it useful.

A representative example of a pair of words whose semantic relation to each other is clear and is relevant, but they are not synonymous (or synonymous only in the loosest sense of that term), is nonexpert and amateur: usually the two concepts are coinstantiated, which makes them clearly and relevantly semantically related, but the other instances in which they are not coinstantiated, and their perennial potential not to be coinstantiated, have practical importance, so it is reasonable not to call them synonyms but rather to place them in "see also" position.

Other relevant pages on Wiktionary can also be linked here, such as appendices and categories.

Note: For any links to external sites, including sister projects like Wikipedia, use the section ====Further reading==== (See this vote)

Usage[edit]

====See also====
* {{l|en|related term}} (allows language-specific link)
* [[related term]] (also acceptable)

Note that for etymologically related words (in the same language), the header ====Related terms==== should be used – see Wiktionary:Etymology.

See also[edit]