自然

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Chinese[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Etymology[edit]

From  ("self") +  ("just so, like that, -ly").

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (自然, reconstructed)
Character (自), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 從 (15)
Final: 脂
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 疾二切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ziɪH/ /d͡zʱiH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡zjɪH/
Character (然), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 日 (38)
Final: 仙
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 如延切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵiᴇn/ /ȵʑi̯ɛn/ /ȵiɛn/ /ȵiɛn/ /ȵian/ /ȵʑĭɛn/ /ȵʑjæn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (自然, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ dzijH › /*s.[b]i[t]-s/ self (adv.)
rán ‹ nyen › /*[n]a[n]/ so, thus; (adv suffix)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
17879 1 /*ɦljids/
10756 2 /*njen/

Definitions[edit]

自然

  1. nature; natural world
  2. natural; at ease; without strain
  3. naturally; in a natural manner
  4. naturally; of course; as a matter of course

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (自然):


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
ぜん
Grade: 4
on'yomi

Adjectival noun[edit]

自然 (-na inflection, hiragana しぜん, romaji shizen)

  1. natural
  2. spontaneous

Inflection[edit]

Adverb[edit]

自然 (hiragana しぜん, romaji shizen)

  1. naturally
  2. spontaneously
  3. rarely
  4. coincidentally

Noun[edit]

自然 (hiragana しぜん, romaji shizen)

  1. nature
  2. spontaneity

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakkan, ISBN 4095102535.

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên (vi), "nature"

Adjective[edit]

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên (vi), "natural"

Adverb[edit]

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên (vi), "naturally"