Prefixes and prepositions:
- Should "ad-" be considered a prefix in Latin, given "ad" is a standalone preposition?
- EncycloPetey: rather not.
- A consequence of denying the status of prefix to "ad-": terms combined from "ad" get classified as compounds.
- In Czech, many things considered to be prefixes have a corresponding preposition: před-, nad-, pod-, v-, od-, etc.
- Should "vlézt" be considered a compound in Czech? My take: no.
- In German, equally, many things considered to be prefixes have a corresponding preposition: auf-, an-, zu-, mit-, vor-, etc.
- Should "aufmachen" be considered a compound in German? My take: no.
English prefixes corresponding to prepositions (are they really prefixes or are they rather pseudo-prefixes?):
- under and under-; understand, undergo, underpay
- over and over-; overdo, overcautious, overwork
- out and out-; outsmart, outrun, outcast
- in and in-; intake, inbreed, inbound
- off and off-: offsite, offshoot, offshore
- on and on-: onset, ongoing, onboard, onfield, online, onlooking, onrushing, onscreen
English prefixes (or pseudo-ones) corresponding to adverbs:
- down and down-; downplay, downsize, downregulate
- up and up-; uphold, upstart, uptake, update
- back and back-; backpropagate, backtrack, backhand, backlash
- forth and forth-; forthcoming, forthright, forthwith
Czech prefixes corresponding to prepositions:
- na and na-
- pod and pod-
- nad and nad-
- do and do-
- v and v-
- při and při-
- mezi and mezi-
- bez and bez-
- za and za-
Czech prefixes not corresponding to prepositions:
- The sameness of form alone seems not to guarantee semantic correspondence
- "u" (at, near to) and "u-" (complete the action with an irreversible result, "utopit", "utrhnout").
- Citations missing
German prefixes corresponding to prepositions:
- ab and ab-
- auf and auf-
- an and an-
- bei and bei-
- durch and durch-
- mit and mit-
- nach and nach-
- unter and unter-
- um and um-
- über and über-
- vor and vor-
- zu and zu-
German prefixes corresponding to adverbs (correctness unclear; see the notes below):
- da and da-
- her and her-
- herbei and herbei- (herbei-'s prefixhood is questioned by Prince Kassad)
- herab and herab-
- heran and heran-
- heraus and heraus-
- herein and herein-
- herum and herum-
- herunter and herunter-
- hin and hin-
- nieder and nieder-
- voran and voran-
- voraus and voraus-
- vorbei and vorbei- (vorbeikommen, vorbeilaufen)
- vorher and vorher-
- weg and weg-
- zurück and zurück-
- zusammen and zusammen-
Are these really prefixes? But also, are these really standalone adverbs rather than things always ocurring as part of a separable verb?
Whether these are prefixes or not, they combine with verbs to create separable verbs, such as "heranziehen" used as "Ich ziehe heran".
Prefixes that seem secure from being accused of non-prefixhood:
- be- ("bestellen")
- dar- ("darstellen")
- ent- ("entsprechen")
- er- ("erzeugen")
- un- ("unglaublich")
- wider- ("widerspiegeln")
- zer- ("zerlegen")
Other prefixes or pseudo-prefixes:
Modern Greek candidate prefixes corresponding to prepositions:
Prefixes vs prepositions in Latin:
- dis- in "discerno" is a prefix; discern in The Century Dictionary, The Century Co., New York, 1911
- "ad" in "adverbium", however, is considered a standalone preposition, both by EncycloPetey and Century 1911, as Century 1911 writes "ad" + "verbium" instead of "ad-" + "verbium"; adverb in The Century Dictionary, The Century Co., New York, 1911