down

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
See also: Down

English[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Middle English doun, from Old English dūn, from British Celtic dunon 'hill; hillfort' (compare Welsh din 'hill', Irish dún 'hill, fort'), from Proto-Indo-European *dheue or dhwene. More at town; akin to dune.

Noun[edit]

down (countable and uncountable, plural downs)

  1. (archaic except in place-names) Hill, rolling grassland
    Churchill Downs, Upson Downs (from Auntie Mame, by Patrick Dennis).
    • 1610, The Tempest, by Shakespeare, act 4 scene 1
      And with each end of thy blue bow dost crown
      My bosky acres and my unshrubb'd down
    • Ray
      Hills afford prospects, as they must needs acknowledge who have been on the downs of Sussex.
    • Tennyson
      She went by dale, and she went by down.
  2. (usually plural) Field, especially for racing.
  3. (UK, chiefly in the plural) A tract of poor, sandy, undulating or hilly land near the sea, covered with fine turf which serves chiefly for the grazing of sheep.
    • Sandys
      Seven thousand broad-tailed sheep grazed on his downs.
  4. A road for shipping in the English Channel or Straits of Dover, near Deal, employed as a naval rendezvous in time of war.
    • Cook (First Voyage)
      On the 11th [June, 1771] we run up the channel [] at noon we were abreast of Dover, and about three came to an anchor in the Downs, and went ashore at Deal.
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Etymology 2[edit]

Old English dūne, aphetic form of adūne, from of dūne (off the hill).

Adverb[edit]

down (incomparable and comparable), (comparative farther down, superlative farthest down)

  1. (comparable) From a higher position to a lower one; downwards.
    The cat jumped down from the table.
    • 1906, Stanley J. Weyman, Chippinge Borough, Ch.I:
      It was April 22, 1831, and a young man was walking down Whitehall in the direction of Parliament Street. He wore shepherd's plaid trousers and the swallow-tail coat of the day, with a figured muslin cravat wound about his wide-spread collar.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 6, Mr. Pratt's Patients:
      She was so mad she wouldn't speak to me for quite a spell, but at last I coaxed her into going up to Miss Emmeline's room and fetching down a tintype of the missing Deacon man.
  2. (comparable) At a lower place or position.
    His place is farther down the road.
  3. South (as south is at the bottom of typical maps).
    I went down to Miami for a conference.
  4. (Ireland) Away from the city (even if the location is to the North).
    He went down to Cavan.  down on the farm;  down country
  5. Into a state of non-operation.
    The computer has been shut down.  They closed the shop down.  The up escalator is down.
  6. (rail transport) The direction leading away from the principal terminus, away from milepost zero.
  7. (sentence substitute) Get down.
    Down, boy! (said to a dog)
  8. (UK, academia) Away from Oxford or Cambridge.
    He's gone back down to Newcastle for Christmas.
  9. From a remoter or higher antiquity.
    • (Can we date this quote?) Daniel Webster
      Venerable men! you have come down to us from a former generation.
  10. From a greater to a less bulk, or from a thinner to a thicker consistence.
    to boil down in cookery, or in making decoctions
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Arbuthnot to this entry?)
  11. From less to greater detail.
    • 2013 August 3, “Boundary problems”, The Economist, volume 408, number 8847: 
      Economics is a messy discipline: too fluid to be a science, too rigorous to be an art. Perhaps it is fitting that economists’ most-used metric, gross domestic product (GDP), is a tangle too. GDP measures the total value of output in an economic territory. Its apparent simplicity explains why it is scrutinised down to tenths of a percentage point every month.
  12. (intensifier) Used with verbs to add emphasis to the action of the verb.
    They tamped (down) the asphalt to get a better bond.
  13. Used with verbs to indicate that the action of the verb was carried to some state of completion, rather than being of indefinite duration.
    He boiled the mixture./He boiled down the mixture. He sat waiting./He sat down and waited.
Usage notes[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
  • (From a higher position to a lower one): up
  • (At a lower place): up
  • (Ireland: Away from the city): up
  • (Into a state of non-operation): up
  • (Rail transport: direction leading away from the principal terminus): up
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Preposition[edit]

down

  1. From the higher end to the lower of.
    The ball rolled down the hill.
    • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 5, The Celebrity:
      We expressed our readiness, and in ten minutes were in the station wagon, rolling rapidly down the long drive, for it was then after nine. We passed on the way the van of the guests from Asquith.
  2. From one end to another of.
    The bus went down the street.
    They walked down the beach holding hands.
Antonyms[edit]
  • (From the higher end to the lower): up
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Adjective[edit]

down (comparative more down, superlative most down)

  1. Depressed, feeling low.
    So, things got you down? / Is Rodney Dangerfield giving you no respect? / Well, bunky, cheer up!
  2. On a lower level than before.
    The stock market is down.
    Prices are down.
  3. Having a lower score than an opponent.
    They are down by 3-0 with just 5 minutes to play.
    He was down by a bishop and a pawn after 15 moves.
    At 5-1 down, she produced a great comeback to win the set on a tiebreak.
  4. (baseball, colloquial, following the noun modified) Out.
    Two down and one to go in the bottom of the ninth.
  5. (colloquial) With "on", negative about, hostile to
    Ever since Nixon, I've been down on Republicans.
  6. (not comparable, US, slang) Relaxed about, accepting of.
    Are you down to hang out at the mall, Jamal?
    As long as you're down with helping me pick a phone, Tyrone.
  7. (not comparable) Inoperable; out of order; out of service.
    The system is down.
  8. Finished (of a task); defeated or dealt with (of an opponent or obstacle).
    Two down and three to go. (Two tasks completed and three more still to be done.)
  9. (not comparable, military, law enforcement, slang, of a person) Wounded and unable to move normally; killed.
    We have an officer down outside the suspect's house.
    There are three soldiers down and one walking wounded.
  10. (not comparable, military, aviation, slang, of an aircraft) Mechanically failed, collided, shot down, or otherwise suddenly unable to fly.
    We have a chopper down near the river.
  11. Thoroughly practiced, learned or memorised; mastered. (Compare down pat.)
    It's two weeks until opening night and our lines are still not down yet.
    • 2013, P.J. Hoover, Solstice, (ISBN 0765334690), page 355:
      I stay with Chloe the longest. When she's not hanging out at the beach parties, she lives in a Japanese garden complete with an arched bridge spanning a pond filled with koi of varying sizes and shapes. Reeds shoot out of the water, rustling when the fish swim through them, and river-washed stones are sprinkled in a bed of sand. Chloe has this whole new Japanese thing down.
  12. (obsolete) Downright; absolute; positive.
    a down denial
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Beaumont and Fletcher to this entry?)
Antonyms[edit]
  • (Depressed): up
  • (On a lower level): up
  • (Having a lower score): up
  • (Inoperable): up
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb[edit]

down (third-person singular simple present downs, present participle downing, simple past and past participle downed)

  1. (transitive) To drink or swallow, especially without stopping before the vessel containing the liquid is empty.
    He downed an ale and ordered another.
  2. (transitive) To cause to come down; to knock down or subdue.
    The storm downed several old trees along the highway.
    • Sir Philip Sidney
      To down proud hearts.
    • Madame D'Arblay
      I remember how you downed Beauclerk and Hamilton, the wits, once at our house.
  3. (transitive, pocket billiards) To put a ball in a pocket; to pot a ball.
    He downed two balls on the break.
  4. (transitive, American football) To bring a play to an end by touching the ball to the ground or while it is on the ground.
    He downed it at the seven-yard line.
  5. (transitive) To write off; to make fun of.
  6. (obsolete, intransitive) To go down; to descend.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of John Locke to this entry?)
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

down (plural downs)

  1. a negative aspect; a downer.
    I love almost everything about my job. The only down is that I can't take Saturdays off.
  2. (dated) A grudge (on someone).
    • 1974, GB Edwards, The Book of Ebenezer Le Page, New York 2007, p. 10:
      She had a down on me. I don't know what for, I'm sure; because I never said a word.
  3. An act of swallowing an entire drink in one.
  4. (American football) A single play, from the time the ball is snapped (the start) to the time the whistle is blown (the end) when the ball is down, or is downed.
    I bet after the third down, the kicker will replace the quarterback on the field.
  5. (crosswords) A clue whose solution runs vertically in the grid.
    I haven't solved 12 or 13 across, but I've got most of the downs.
  6. An downstairs room of a two story house.
    She lives in a two-up two-down.
  7. down payment
Translations[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "Spatial particles of orientation", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Norse dún.

Noun[edit]

down (countable and uncountable, plural downs)

  1. Soft, fluffy immature feathers which grow on young birds. Used as insulating material in duvets, sleeping bags and jackets.
  2. (botany) The pubescence of plants; the hairy crown or envelope of the seeds of certain plants, such as the thistle.
  3. The soft hair of the face when beginning to appear.
    • Dryden
      The first down begins to shade his face.
  4. That which is made of down, as a bed or pillow; that which affords ease and repose, like a bed of down.
    • Tennyson
      When in the down I sink my head, / Sleep, Death's twin brother, times my breath.
    • Southern
      Thou bosom softness, down of all my cares!
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

down (third-person singular simple present downs, present participle downing, simple past and past participle downed)

  1. (transitive) To cover, ornament, line, or stuff with down.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Young to this entry?)

Statistics[edit]



Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English down.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

down (used only predicatively, comparative meer down, superlative meest down)

  1. Down, depressed.

Synonyms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English down.

Adjective[edit]

down (not comparable)

  1. Down, depressed.

Declension[edit]

External links[edit]

  • down in Duden online

Welsh[edit]

Verb[edit]

down

  1. first-person plural present habitual / future of dod

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
down ddown nown unchanged