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See also:
U+54BD, 咽
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-54BD

[U+54BC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+54BE]
U+F99E, 咽
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F99E

[U+F99D]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F99F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 口田大 (RWK), four-corner 66000, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 188, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3577
  • Dae Jaweon: page 407, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 616, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+54BD

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠰸

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qiːn, *qiːns, *qiːd): semantic (mouth) + phonetic (OC *qin) – connected to the mouth, the throat.

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (34)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔen/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔen/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɛn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔɛn/
Li
Rong
/ʔen/
Wang
Li
/ien/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔien/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yān
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jin1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yān
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔen ›
Old
Chinese
/*ʔˁi[n]/
English gullet

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 15172
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qiːn/

Definitions[edit]

  1. throat, pharynx

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to swallow; swallow, gulp”).
(This character, , is the simplified and variant form of .)
Notes:

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (34)
Final () (87)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔet̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔet̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɛt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔɛt̚/
Li
Rong
/ʔet̚/
Wang
Li
/iet̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔiet̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ye
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jit3
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 15187
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qiːd/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to make a hoarse sound

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. throat

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
いん
Grade: S
kan’yōon

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(いん) (in

  1. throat
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
えつ
Grade: S
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ʔet̚).

The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(えつ) (etsu

  1. choked; smothered: Only used in 嗚咽 (oetsu, sobbing (n.), to sob (v.))

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
えん
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese / (MC ʔenH).

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(えん) (en

  1. Alternative form of (en, swallow; gulp down): Only used in 咽下 (enka, enge, swallowing (n.), to swallow (v.))

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
のど
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
のど
[noun] the throat
[noun] (by extension) one's singing voice
[noun] (by extension) one's vitals
[noun] This term needs a translation to English.
Alternative spellings
, ,
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
のんど
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see のんど.
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: のんど.)

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
のみど
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see のみど.
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: のみど.)

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term
のみと
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see のみと.
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: のみと.)


Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ʔen).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅙᅧᆫ (Yale: qyèn)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] 목ᄭᅮ무 (Yale: mwòk-s-kwùmwù) (Yale: yèn)
Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 식구무 (Yale: sik-kwumwu) (Yale: yen)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 목구멍 (mokgumeong in))

  1. Hanja form? of (throat; pharynx). [affix]
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ʔet̚).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅙᅧᇙ〮 (Yale: qyélq)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 목몔 (Yale: mwok-myeyl) (Yale: yel)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 목멜 (mongmel yeol))

  1. Hanja form? of (Used in 오열(嗚咽) (oyeol, sobbing): choked; smothered).
Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: yết, nhằn, ịt, nhiết, yến

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.