fard

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See also: färd

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English farden (to apply cosmetics) or Middle French farder, from Old French farder (to make up or paint the face; to disguise; to represent in a false light),[1] from Frankish *farwidōn (to colour, dye), from Proto-Germanic *farwiþōną (to colour), from *farwō (colour), from Proto-Indo-European *perḱ- (coloured; motley). The word is cognate with Icelandic farða, Latin pulcher (beautiful), Old High German farwjan (to colour) (modern German Farbe (colour)), Middle Low German varwe (colour) (Low German Farwe (colour)), Welsh erch (dark brown).

The noun is from French fard (cosmetics, make-up), from Old French fart (cosmetics, make-up) (masculine) (farde (feminine)); further etymology is uncertain, but a possible derivation is from Old High German gifarwit (coloured, painted), past participle of farwjan (to colour).[2]

Verb[edit]

fard (third-person singular simple present fards, present participle farding, simple past and past participle farded)

  1. (transitive, archaic) To paint, as the cheeks or face.
    • 1856, Mark Napier, quoting Zachary Boyd, chapter XXXIII, in The Memoirs of the Marquis of Montrose, volume II, Edinburgh: Thomas G. Stevenson, []; London: Hamilton, Adams & Co., OCLC 933169840, footnote 1, page 701:
      The fairest are but farded like the face of Jezebel []
    • 1989 December 27, Jeffrey Yorke, “Limbaugh’s play on words”, in The Washington Post[1], published 2 January 1990, archived from the original on 27 August 2017:
      Some of the 177 affiliates to the Manhattan-based Rush Limbaugh program complained last Wednesday when the cantankerous national talk show host said he endorsed the efforts of a fellow talk host in Atlanta who called for an end to women "farding in their cars." Limbaugh, who is heard locally on WNTR-AM (1050), told listeners that "farding on the highway is very dangerous as well as offensive to others." Not until Thursday did Limbaugh provide listeners with the meaning of the word "fard," which is to paint with cosmetics.
  2. (transitive, archaic) To embellish or gloss over.
    • 1606, William Birnie, “Against Seculare Pompe in Funerals”, in The Blame of Kirk-bvriall, Tending to Persvvade Cemiteriall Civilitie. [], Edinburgh: Printed by Robert Charteris, [], OCLC 875053471; republished as W[illiam] B[arclay] D[avid] D[onald] Turnbull, editor, The Blame of Kirk-buriall, Tending to Perswade Cemiteriall Civilitie, London: W[illiam] Pickering, []; Edinburgh: G. A. Douglas, 1833, OCLC 222559177:
      For looke how far fellonie may glory in her fetters, so far may we in our funerals wherewith we but feard death. For as some Gentiles, where gold is vernaculous and plentifull, their catiues thogh therewith enchained, yet remaines catiues: so to vs, thogh our graue were of enamelled gold, yet it is but our graue, the monument of our common misery, that by diuine mercy onely may be remedied without farther meanes.
    • 1623 September 21, Joseph Hall, “Sermon X. The Best Bargain: A Sermon Preached to the Court at Theobald’s on Sunday, September 21, 1623”, in Philip Wynter, editor, The Works of the Right Reverend Joseph Hall, D.D., volume V, new revised and corrected edition, Oxford: At the University Press, published 1863, OCLC 702552550, page 179:
      [I]t is but bare, simple, plain, honest, homely truth, without welt, without guard. It will abide none but native colours. It scorneth to woo favour with farding and licking and counterfeisance. It hates either bought or borrowed beauty; and therefore, like some native face among the painted, looks coarse and rusty.
    • 1816, Jedadiah Cleishbotham [pseudonym; Walter Scott], chapter VIII, in Tales of My Landlord, [...] In Four Volumes, volume III (Old Mortality), Edinburgh: Printed [by James Ballantyne and Co.] for William Blackwood, []; London: John Murray, [], OCLC 230697985, pages 155–156:
      [Y]e handle this matter too tenderly, nor will my conscience permit me to fard or daub over the causes of divine wrath []
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

fard (countable and uncountable, plural fards)

  1. (archaic) Colour or paint, especially white paint, used on the face; makeup, war-paint.
    • 1791, John Whitaker, chapter I, in Gibbon’s History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, in Vols. IV, V, and VI, Quarto, Reviewed, London: Printed for J[ohn] Murray, [], OCLC 1006183490, page 4:
      And theſe [including Edward Gibbon] preſent us with the ſkeleton of hiſtory, not merely clothed with muſcles, animated with life, and bearing the bloom of health upon its cheek; but, inſtead of carrying a higher fluſh of health upon its cheek, and ſhewing a brighter beam of life in its eyes, rubbed with Spaniſh wool, painted with French fard, and exhibiting the fire of falſehood and wantonneſs in its eyes.
    • 1856, Mark Napier, quoting James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, chapter XXXIII, in The Memoirs of the Marquis of Montrose, volume II, Edinburgh: Thomas G. Stevenson, []; London: Hamilton, Adams & Co., OCLC 933169840, page 701:
      [Y]et, that your Majesty may not be abused, and that you may see that there is nothing but fard in that which may seem fairest of all their proceedings, I conceive myself obliged in duty and honour to undervalue all their malice, and truly to inform your Majesty in what you are, and may be, so much concerned. [Footnote 1: [] Fard here signifies the false daubing on a harlot's cheek. []]
    • 1862 February, “Cosmetics”, in William B. Dana, editor, The Merchants’ Magazine and Commercial Review, volume XLVI, number II, New York, N.Y.: William B. Dana, publisher and proprietor, [], OCLC 987669546, pages 141–142:
      [page 141] Various other paints, or what the French commonly denominate fards, are chiefly made for theatrical use; but they are, nevertheless, extensively used by private individuals. Unfortunately, most of these have for a basis white lead. [] [page 142] In France, where the conservators of public health constitute an intelligent portion of every municipality, prosecutions for selling fatally deleterious fards are far from being uncommon.
Alternative forms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English ferd.

Noun[edit]

fard (plural fards)

  1. (chiefly Scotland, obsolete) Alternative form of faird (force of movement; impetus, rush; hence, a violent onset).

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Arabic فَرْض(farḍ, religious duty), from فَرَضَ(faraḍa, to ordain, make obligatory, specify).

Noun[edit]

fard (plural fards)

  1. (Islam) A commandment from Allah that a Muslim has to fulfil; a religious duty or obligation.
    • 1995, Norma Tarazi; Zeba Siddiqui, “Islamic Practices, Manners, and Values”, in The Child in Islam: A Muslim Parent’s Handbook, Plainfield, Ind.: American Trust Publications, →ISBN, page 132:
      It is suggested that the child pray only the fardrak'ats at this stage. He can keep adding the sunnah rak'ats from the time he has all the fards completed—that is, from his seventh birthday—so that by age ten he has the entire salat, fards and sunnahs, complete.
Translations[edit]

Adjective[edit]

fard (not comparable)

  1. (Islam) Required as a matter of religious duty or obligation.
    • 1993, Mawlânâ Diyâ’ Ad-dîn Khâlid, “Introduction”, in Belief and Islam (Hakîkat Kitâbevi Publications; no. 8), Istanbul: Hakîkat Kitâbevi, OCLC 1024988228:
      The second fundamental of Islam is "to perform the ritual prayer (namâz, salât) [five times a day in accordance with its conditions and fards] when the time for prayer comes." It is fard for every Muslim to perform salât five times every day after each time of salât starts and to know that he or she performs it in due time.
Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ farden, v.” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 13 August 2018.
  2. ^ fard, n.2”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1895.

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle French, from Old French fard (make-up, cosmetics), from farder (to apply make-up, use cosmetics), from Old Frankish *farwidōn (to dye, colour), from Proto-Germanic *farwiþōną (to colour), from *farwō (colour), from Proto-Indo-European *perḱ- (motley, coloured). Cognate with Old High German farwjan (to colour), Middle Low German varwe (colour). See more above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

fard m (plural fards)

  1. make-up

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • English: fard (noun)

Further reading[edit]


Italian[edit]

Noun[edit]

fard m (invariable)

  1. blusher, rouge

Maltese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic فَرْد(fard).

Adjective[edit]

fard

  1. odd (not even)

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *fardiz.

Noun[edit]

fard f

  1. traffic, journey