ņemt

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the convergence of two dialectal forms, nemt and jemt, from Proto-Baltic *nem-, *yem-, two parallel forms ultimately derived from Proto-Indo-European *em-, *em- (to take). The reason for the existence of two parallel forms is unclear. There are several hypotheses: two independent stems that merged in pre-Proto-Indo-European, irregular palatalization of an original n- to y-, an irregular perfect form ni-em that became an independent word, derivation with (e)n- “in,” etc. Cognates include (from the full form *em-) Latin emō (to buy, to acquire), Old Irish arfo-emet (they take); from the reduced form *m-, Lithuanian im̃ti (via Proto-Baltic *im), present imù, past ėmiaũ, dialectally present also jemù, emù, jamù, imiù, past imiaũ, jėmiaũ, Old Prussian imt, Sudovian emt (maybe *jemt?), Proto-Slavic *ęti, first person singular present *jьmǫ (Old Church Slavonic ѩти (jęti), first person singular present имѫ (imǫ), Russian dialectal ять (jatʹ), standard взять (vzjatʹ) “to take,” Ukrainian яти (játy) “to begin,” Czech jmout “to grab, to begin,” Polish jąć “to grab, to take”); with an initial n-, Gothic 𐌽𐌹𐌼𐌰𐌽 (niman), Old High German nēman, German nehmen, Russian dialectal нять (njatʹ) (cf. standard Russian prefixed forms like поднять (podnját’)), Ukrainian няти (njáty, to take), Belarusian няць (njacʹ, to take, to grab).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ņemt tr., 1st conj., pres. ņemu, ņem, ņem, past ņēmu

  1. to take (to seize with one's hands for some purpose)
    ņemt rokā lāpstuto take the shovel with (lit. in) (one's) hands
    ņemt karoti un sākt ēstto take the spoon and begin to eat
    ņemt adatu pirkstosto take the needle with (lit. in) (one's) fingers
    ņemt bērnu pie rokasto take the child by the hand
    ņem zīmuli un raksti!take the pen and write!
    ņem medu ar karotitake the honey with a spoon
    ņem ābolus no grozatake the apples from the basket
    ņemt nost cepurito take off (one's) hat
    ņemt griešanai asu nazito take a sharp knife for cutting
    ņemt grāmatu no bibliotēkasto take a book from the library
    suns ņem kaulu zobosthe dog took the bone with (lit. in) (his) teeth
    Liene turēja roku izstieptu, bet Ernests vilcinājās paciņu ņemtLiene kept her hand stretched, but Ernests hesitated to take the packet
    lūdzu, ņemiet vēl kādu konfekti!please, take some more candy!
    karš spieda grāmatvedi ņemt rokās ierociwar forced the accountat to take up arms (lit. to take a weapon in (his) hands)
  2. to take (to accept, to enjoy)
    ņemt dāvanasto take, accept presents
    ņemt kukuļusto take, accept bribes
    ņemt nauduto take, accept money
    ņemt atvaļinājumuto take a vacation
    ņemt saules vannasto take a sunbath
    laimi jau vajag mācēt ņemt, dārgā, neviens to mums klāt nenesiswe have to know how to take, seize happiness, dear, nobody is going to bring it to us
    viņš savu atvaļinājumu gribēja ņemt februāra beigāshe wanted to take his vacation at the end of February
    trīs pāri apakšbikšu esmu pašuvis... bet nezinu, cik ņemt maksasthree pairs of underpants I have sewn... but I don't know, how (much) to take (as) payment, price
    gaidīt un cerēt ir labi, / un rātni ir prasīt un lūgties; / labāk ir negaidīt daudz, / neprasīt, nelūgties: ņemtto wait and to hope is good, / it is sensible to ask for and beg: / better is to not wait much, / to not ask, not beg: (just) take
  3. to take (to cause someone to act in a certain way, to do a certain job; also, to hire someone, to put someone to work)
    ņemt meiteni dejotto take a girl to dance
    ņemt apakšīrniekuto take a subtenant (i.e., to sublet)
    ņemt palīgāto take (someone) as help, to use (someone) in some work
    ņemt dzīvokļa remontam krāsotājusto take (= hire) painters to rennovate the apartment
    es nau nezinu, vai mani ņemsI don't know if they will take (= hire) me
    gribot negribot bija jāņem zāģeri, lai sagriež dēļoswillingly or not, (they) had to take (= hire) a carpenter to cut the boards, planks
    gandrīz visos gājienos viņu ņēma par ceļvedi, un šo goda uzdevumu viņš uzņēmās labprātin almost all processions they took him as a guide, and this
    Marčuls zināja: šeit Randenē būs viņa pēdējais darbs... citur neviens vairs neņems baltu veci neveiklām rokāmMarčuls knew: his last work would be here, in Randene... elsewhere nobody will take a white (= gray) old man with clumsy hands
    mēs ņemam talkā matemātiku... visu, ko var pastāstīt medicīniskie dokumenti, pārtulkojam skaitļu valodāwe took mathematics to the rescue (= used mathematics to solve the problem)... we translated everything that the medical documents could tell into the language of numbers
  4. to take (to put someone in a certain situation, condition)
    ņemt aizbildnība, aizgādnība, glabāšanāto take into custody
    ņemt gūstāto take into captivity
    tu ņēmi mani savā aizsardzībā un aizstāvējiyou took me under your protection and defended (me)
  5. to take (to call for duty)
    ņemt armijā, karāto take (someone) into the army, to war
    vienīgos dēlus neņēma kara dienestā(they) didn't take only sons to military service
  6. to take (to marry)
    ņemt skaistu līgavuto take (= marry) a beautiful bride
    ņemt vīruto take a husband
    tu gan esi briesmīgi smuks, Belamī; varbūt tu mani par seivu ņemsi?you are terribly handsome, Belamī; maybe you'll take me as your wife?
  7. (in combination with līdzi) to take along (to cause something, someone to go or be somewhere together with oneself)
    ņēmt ceļojumā līdzi mugursomuto take a backpack along to the trip
    vienmēr ņēmt līdzi pulkstenito always take along (one's) watch
    man te nepatīk; ņem mani līdzi!I don't like it here; take me with (you)!
    ņēmt bērnus līdzi tūristu pārgājienāto take the children along in a tourist trip
  8. to take, to get (to obtain something for a certain purpose, use; to learn, to hear about something)
    nezināt, kur ņemt nauduto not know where to take money (from)
    ņemt citātus no dažādu autoru darbiemto take quotes from the works of several authors
    kādu audumu ņemsi mētelim?which fabric will you take (= use) for the coat?
    bērniem vajag skolas, apģērba, kur to visu lai ņem?children need school, clothes, where are you going to take (= get) all that?
    bet pasakiet, kur lai mēs ņemam skolotājus?but tell (me), where should we take (= get, find, hire) teachers?
    kur tu esi ņēmusi tādas tenkas?where did you take (= hear) such gossip (from)?
    Annele nevar saprast, kur Lulīte ņem tādus nedzirdētus vārdusAnnele cannot understand where Lulīte takes (= finds, hears) such unheard(-of) words
  9. to take (to get, to obtain, to acquire, to borrow, to buy)
    ņemt grāmatas no bibliotēkāto take books from the library
    ņemt kinoteātrī biļeti pēdējā rindāto take (= get, buy) movie tickets in the last row
    ņemt piena produktus tuvējā veikalāto take (= get, buy) dairy products in a nearby shop
    ņemt restorānā dažādus ēdienusto take (= buy, have) several dishes in a restaurant
    kur tu ņemi tik skaistu drānu?where did you take (= get, buy) such beautiful cloth?
  10. to take (to gather fruits, grains, the harvest)
    jā, rudens klāt; jau mātes ņem kāpostusyes, autumn has arrived; mothers are already taking (= gathering) cabbage
    pēc skolas gāju pie saimniekiem ravēt cukurbietes, tad sienu grābt, kartupeļus ņemtafter school I went to the farmers to weet the beets, then to rake in hay (and) take (= gather, harvest) potatoes
  11. to take (to remove a part of, to work on, to make by removing; also figuratively, about people)
    ņemt platu vālu (pļaujot)to take a wide swath (while mowing, reaping, harvesting)
    vālu ņem tik platu, cik izkapts atļaujtake as wide a swath as the scythe will let you
    šis arkls ņem šaurāku vaguthis plow takes (= makes) a narrower furrow
    vienu dienu centrā pie ciemata aparu zemi nākamajam parkam... dziļi tur bija jāņem: četrdesmit, četrdesmit pieci centrimetrione day at the center by the village I plowed the land for the future park... (I) had to take (= work it) (really) deep: forty, forty-five centimeters
    cilvēki nāca pie viņa un asos vārdos pārmeta, ka viņš esot par daudz mīksti ņēmis baronu, vajadzējis tūlīt vakarā prasīt atbildipeople came to him and complained with sharp words that he had taken (= treated) the baron too softly, (he) should have demanded an immediate answer, that (same) evening
  12. to take (to shoot, to kill someone, to “take someone out)
    “ES ņemšu malējo, lai tas neielec krūmos”, Līdaka pačukstēja Amatniekam, kas jau bija sagatavojies šaušanaiI will take (= shoot) the one (German soldier) further away, so that he doesn't jump into the bushes,” the Pike whispered to the Craftsman, who was ready to shoot
  13. (in combination with a verb) used to reinforce the intensity or suddenness of the action; to up and...
    ņemt un izdarītto up and do it
    ņemt aiziet uz teātrito up and go to the theater
    viņš ņēma un pateica visuhe up and said everything
    tā ir pirmā reize, kad Valdis ņēmis viņu nopēlis, līdz šim viņš uz meiteni skatījies gandrīz ar apbrīnuthis is the first time that Valdis up and (= really) gave her a reprimand, up until then he had rather looked at the girl with admiration
  14. to take, to consider, to treat, to accept (something as something)
    ņemt dzīvi tādu, kāda tā irto take life as it is
    ņemt ļaunā, par ļaunuto take (something) badly (= to be offended)
    ņemt par labuto take (something) well (= to consider it good)
    ņemt vieglito take (something) lightly
    ņemt nopietnito take (something) seriously
    juridiski ņemotjuridically taking (= speaking)
    vienu istabu ierīkoju par savu buduāru, ņemdama paraugam Laines istabuI will decorate one room as my boudoir, taking as example Laine's room
    vispār ņemot, dzīvnieku valodai piemīt sugu specifika: līdzīgs sazinās ar līdzīgugenerally speaking (= taking), animal language is essentially about the specific: similar is connected to similar
    vai tā bija laime? jā, protams; visu savu dzīvi kopā ņemot, viņš nevarēja to nosaukt citādi kā par laimīguwas that happiness? yes, of course; taking all life together (= into account), he could not call it anything but happy
  15. (of animals, especially fish) to take, to get and eat; to bite
    labi zināms: dienas vidu līdakas neņem(it is) well known: in the middle of the day, pikes don't bite
    vasarā bija daudz zivju, bet tagad rudenī mēs braucam ar velci, un mūsu vizulīti neņem neviena patiat the creek in summer there were many fish, but now in autumn we go with a draging pen, and not one (of the fish) takes (= bites) our little bait
  16. (colloquial, of sharp tools) to cut
    Uģis atvāza savu kabatas nazi un pārbaudīja asmeni... “ņems labi”, nospriedaUģis opened his pocket knife and examined the blade... “it will take (= cut) well,” he thought
    šķembu bojāts zāģis vairs nav uzasināms, jo vīle tādus zobus neņemthe saw damaged by splinters can no longer be sharpened, because the file won't take (= sharpen) such teeth
    jaunais vīles pirms lietošas vienmēr ieberzējamas ar krītu vai koka ogli, lai tās sākumā tik asi neņemtunew files before being used are always rubbed with chalk or charcoal, so that they don't take (= cut) so sharply at first (use)
  17. (often with nost) to take away (to cause someone to lose something)
    karš pirmo dēlu ņēma mātei; no frontes nāca nāves ziņathe war took mother's first son; the news of (his) death came rom the front
    cilvēks visu var aizliegt, visu var aizturēt, bet ne domāšanu, jo tad jāņem pati dzīvība papriekšuyou can prohibit everything, stop everyghing, but not thought, because then you have to take life (= kill) before (you can do that)
    Marga ir mana tēva drauga meita; bet viņa tev Hariju nost neņems, viņai ir līgavainisMarga is my father's friend's daughter; but she will not take Harry away (from) you, she (already) has a fiancé
  18. (dated sense) to take a path, road, direction, to set off in some direction
    Antiņš ņēma ceļu uz māju taisni pār purvuAntiņš took path (= set off toward) home straight across the swamp
    droši vien prātīgāk būtu uzreiz ņemt uz dienvidiem un tādā veidā saīsināt ceļuit would probably be wiser to just take (= set off, go) south and thus shorten the way

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ņemt”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7