за-

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Russian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

за- (za-)

  1. (used with verbs) behind, beyond
    за- (za-) + ‎-йти́ impf (-jtí, to go) → ‎зайти́ pf (zajtí, to go behind, to go beyond; to call on)
  2. (used with verbs) to begin doing (describing an action of commencing)
    за- (za-) + ‎говори́ть impf (govorítʹ, to speak) → ‎заговори́ть pf (zagovorítʹ, to begin to speak)
  3. (used with verbs) in advance (describing an action of doing something ahead of time)
    за- (za-) + ‎гото́вить impf (gotóvitʹ, to prepare) → ‎загото́вить pf (zagotóvitʹ, to prepare)
  4. (used with verbs) perfectivizes verbs
    за- (za-) + ‎бетони́ровать impf (betonírovatʹ, to concrete) → ‎забетони́ровать pf (zabetonírovatʹ, to concrete)
    за- (za-) + ‎по́лнить impf (pólnitʹ, to fill) (now archaic, not to be confused with полни́ть (polnítʹ)) → ‎запо́лнить pf (zapólnitʹ, to fill)
    за- (za-) + ‎асфальти́ровать impf (asfalʹtírovatʹ, to asphalt, to resurface) → ‎заасфальти́ровать pf (zaasfalʹtírovatʹ, to asphalt, to resurface)
    за- (za-) + ‎бели́ть impf (belítʹ, to whitewash, to whiten) → ‎забели́ть pf (zabelítʹ, to whitewash, to whiten)
  5. (used with verbs) to the finish, to the end (describing a completed result)
    за- (za-) + ‎верши́ть impf (veršítʹ, to manage, control, direct) (literary) → ‎заверши́ть pf (zaveršítʹ, to finish, complete, accomplish)
  6. (used with verbs) describing an action of covering something, of being covered, or hiding behind something
    за- (za-) + ‎ржа́веть, ржаве́ть impf (ržávetʹ, ržavétʹ, to become rusty) → ‎заржа́веть, заржаве́ть pf (zaržávetʹ, zaržavétʹ, to become rusty (as an emphasis, by being covered with rust))
    за- (za-) + ‎целова́ть impf (celovátʹ, to kiss) → ‎зацелова́ть pf (zacelovátʹ, to cover with kisses (denoting kissing many times, that one's body is fully covered with kisses))
  7. (used with verbs) describing an intensified or extreme action or an action of doing something up to the point that an object becomes a junk
    за- (za-) + ‎чита́ть impf (čitátʹ, to read) → ‎зачита́ть pf (začitátʹ, to read (a book, as well as not returning it back; until it becomes all torn apart; simply reading out loud, denoting that the loud voice is a sign of intensified or extreme action))
    за- (za-) + ‎сиде́ть impf (sidétʹ, to sit) → ‎засиде́ться pf (zasidétʹsja, to sit down, to stay for quite a long time (denoting that the long duration of sitting is a sign of intensified or extreme action))
    за- (za-) + ‎ду́мать impf (dúmatʹ, to think) → ‎заду́мать pf (zadúmatʹ, to reflect, to become lost in thoughts)
  8. (used with verbs) describing an action that implies the existence of barriers, obstacles, or hindrance
    за- (za-) + ‎баллоти́ровать impf (ballotírovatʹ, to vote (for someone)) → ‎забаллоти́ровать pf (zaballotírovatʹ, to fail to elect)
    за- (za-) + ‎держа́ть impf (deržátʹ, to hold, keep, support) → ‎задержа́ть pf (zaderžátʹ, to detain, delay)
  9. (with a reflexive verb) to do with abandonment
    за- (za-) + ‎говори́ть impf (govorítʹ, to speak) + ‎-ся (-sja) → ‎заговори́ться pf (zagovorítʹsja, to spout nonsense; to rattle on; to have a long talk with, forgetting the time)
  10. (used with nouns, in place names) trans-
    за- (za-) + ‎Карпа́ты (Karpáty, Carpathians) + ‎-ье (-ʹje) → ‎Закарпа́тье (Zakarpátʹje, Transcarpathia)
    за- (za-) + ‎Кавка́з (Kavkáz, Caucasus) + ‎-ье (-ʹje) → ‎Закавка́зье (Zakavkázʹje, Transcaucasia)

Usage notes[edit]

Derived terms[edit]