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U+8650, 虐
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8650

[U+864F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8651]
虐 U+2F9B3, 虐
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F9B3
䕫
[U+2F9B2]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 虜
[U+2F9B4]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 141, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 卜心尸一 (YPSM), four-corner 21211, composition𰀂(GHTKV) or ⿸𰀄(J))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1073, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32678
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1540, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2820, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+8650

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𰀂 second round simplified

Glyph origin[edit]

In the oracle bone script, an ideogrammic compound (會意): (tiger) + (person).

Etymology[edit]

Possibly related to (OC *hŋawɢ, “to ridicule”) (Bodman, 1980).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • ieh4 - literary;
  • nieh4 - vernacular.
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • gio̍k/gia̍k - literary;
    • lio̍k/jio̍k, ge̍k - vernacular;
    • gio̍h - vernacular (e.g. 礙虐).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nyɛ⁵¹/
    Harbin /iau⁵³/
    /nyɛ⁵³/
    Tianjin /niɑu⁵³/
    /nye⁵³/
    Jinan /yə²¹/
    Qingdao /yə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /yo²⁴/
    Xi'an /yo²¹/
    Xining /ȵyu²⁴/
    Yinchuan /nye¹³/
    Lanzhou /yə¹³/
    /miə¹³/
    Ürümqi /yɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /nio²¹³/
    Chengdu /nyo³¹/
    Guiyang /nio²¹/
    Kunming /nio³¹/
    Nanjing /loʔ⁵/
    Hefei /lyɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /iəʔ²/
    Pingyao /ȵyʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /niaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵiaʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ȵiɑʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ȵiɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ȵa²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /niɔ²²/
    Tunxi /ȵio¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵio²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ȵio²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian /ŋiok̚¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋiok̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jœk̚²/
    Nanning /nœk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jœk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /giɔk̚⁵/
    /liɔk̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋyoʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋiɔ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋiak̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /niɔk̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (107)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɨɐk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋiɐk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɨak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiak̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭak̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯ak̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yuè
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nüè
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ](r)awk/
    English cruel

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9636
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋawɢ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. cruel; tyrannical; oppressive
    2. to abuse; to maltreat
    3. (literary) disaster; calamity, catastrophe

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. to oppress; to persecute; to tyrannize

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (hak) (hangeul , revised hak, McCune–Reischauer hak, Yale hak)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: ngược, ngước

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.