Appendix:English third-person singular pronouns

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This is a list of third-person singular pronouns which are used in English. First the common, traditional pronouns are listed: he, she, it, the singular they and periphrastic or combined forms. Then, attested gender-neutral pronouns are listed. Proposed but unattested pronouns are listed separately.

nominative (subject) accusative (object) possessive adjective possessive pronoun reflexive
Traditional pronouns
masculine he laughed I kissed him his head hurts that is his he feeds himself
feminine she laughed I kissed her her head hurts that is hers she feeds herself
neuter it laughed I kissed it its head hurts that is its it feeds itself
singular "they" they laughed I kissed them their head hurts that is theirs they feed themself / themselves
Combined forms
"he or she" he or she laughed I kissed him or her his or her head hurts that is his or hers he or she feeds him or herself, himself or herself
"he/she" he/she laughed I kissed him/her his/her head hurts that is his/hers he/she feeds him/herself, himself/herself
"she/he" she/he laughed I kissed her/him her/his head hurts that is hers/his she/he feeds her/himself, herself/himself
"s/he", "(s)he" s/he, (s)he laughed
Invented pronouns
"yo"[1] yo laughed I kissed yo  ?  ?  ?
Elverson[2] ey laughed I kissed em eir head hurts that is eirs ey feeds emself
Spivak (original)[3] e laughed I kissed em eir head hurts that is eirs e feeds emself
Spivak variants ey / e laughed I kissed em eir head hurts that is eirs ey / e feeds emself / eirself
s/he and hir[4] s/he laughed I kissed hir hir head hurts that is hirs s/he feeds hirself
sie and hir[5] sie laughed I kissed hir hir head hurts that is hirs sie feeds hirself
ze and hir[6] ze laughed I kissed hir hir head hurts that is hirs ze feeds hirself
ze and zir[7] ze laughed I kissed zir zir head hurts that is zirs ze feeds zirself
per[8] per laughed I kissed per per / pers head hurts that is pers per feeds perself
co[9][10] co laughed I kissed co co’s head hurts that is co’s co feeds coself
thon[11][12] thon laughed I kissed thon thons head hurts that is thon's thon feeds thonself
"heorshe" heorshe laughed I kissed himorher hisorher head hurts heorshe feeds himorherself

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spontaneously created at Baltimore schools, no background related to transgender, feminism, science fiction or technical writing known, Stotko and Troyer 2007
  2. ^ "Transgender" pronouns coined by Christine M. Elverson of Skokie, Illinois, to win a contest in 1975. (Black, Judie (1975-08-23), “Ey has a word for it”, in Chicago Tribune, page 12, 1). Promoted as preferable to other major contenders (sie, zie and singular they) by John Williams's Gender-neutral Pronoun FAQ (2004).
  3. ^ Popularized by LambdaMOO in 1991, based on the use of E, Ey, and Eir in The Joy of TeX by Michael Spivak (1983).
  4. ^ Used in science fiction like Peter David's Star Trek: New Frontier book series.
  5. ^ First recorded use on Usenet: Chip Hitchcock (1981-05-26), “receptors”, in fa.sf-lovers, Usenet[1], retrieved 2007-01-01
  6. ^ Example:
    Bornstein, Kate (1997-12-18) My Gender Workbook: How to Become a Real Man, a Real Woman, the Real You, or Something Else Entirely[2], London, New York: Routledge, ISBN 9780415916738, LCC HQ1075.B69 1998
  7. ^ Example:
    Calderwood, Lynsey (2002) Cracked: Recovering After Traumatic Brain Injury, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, ISBN 978-1-84642-174-7, page 155
  8. ^ MediaMOO's "person" gender, derived from Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time (1979), in which people of 2137 use "per" as their sole third-person pronoun.
  9. ^ Coined by feminist writer Mary Orovan in 1970; in common usage in intentional communities of the Federation of Egalitarian Communities.Baron, Dennis (accessed 2010-06-22), “The Epicene Pronouns”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[3]
    Kingdon, Jim (accessed 2010-06-22), “Gender-free Pronouns in English”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[4]
  10. ^ “Skyhouse Community – Bylaws”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[5], accessed 2010-06-22
    “Bylaws – Sandhill – 1982”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[6], accessed 2010-06-22
    “Bylaws – East Wind – 1974”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[7], accessed 2010-06-22
    “Bylaws – Twin Oaks”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[8], accessed 2010-06-22
  11. ^ proposed in Converse, C. C. (1884-07-23), “A New Pronoun”, in The Critic and Good Literature[9], issue 31, page 55
  12. ^ Converse, C. Crozat (November 1889), “That Desired Impersonal Pronoun”, in The Writer[10], volume 3, issue 2, pages 247-248