Appendix:English third-person singular pronouns
This is a list of third-person singular pronouns which are used in English. First the common, traditional pronouns are listed: he, she, it, the singular they and periphrastic or combined forms. Then, attested gender-neutral pronouns are listed. Proposed but unattested pronouns are listed separately.
|nominative (subject)||accusative (object)||possessive adjective||possessive pronoun||reflexive|
|masculine||he laughed||I kissed him||his head hurts||that is his||he feeds himself|
|feminine||she laughed||I kissed her||her head hurts||that is hers||she feeds herself|
|neuter||it laughed||I kissed it||its head hurts||that is its||it feeds itself|
|singular "they"||they laughed||I kissed them||their head hurts||that is theirs||they feed themself / themselves|
|"he or she"||he or she laughed||I kissed him or her||his or her head hurts||that is his or hers||he or she feeds him or herself, himself or herself|
|"he/she"||he/she laughed||I kissed him/her||his/her head hurts||that is his/hers||he/she feeds him/herself, himself/herself|
|"she/he"||she/he laughed||I kissed her/him||her/his head hurts||that is hers/his||she/he feeds her/himself, herself/himself|
|"s/he", "(s)he"||s/he, (s)he laughed|
|Elverson||ey laughed||I kissed em||eir head hurts||that is eirs||ey feeds emself|
|Spivak (original)||e laughed||I kissed em||eir head hurts||that is eirs||e feeds emself|
|Spivak variants||ey / e laughed||I kissed em||eir head hurts||that is eirs||ey / e feeds emself / eirself|
|s/he and hir||s/he laughed||I kissed hir||hir head hurts||that is hirs||s/he feeds hirself|
|sie and hir||sie laughed||I kissed hir||hir head hurts||that is hirs||sie feeds hirself|
|ze and hir||ze laughed||I kissed hir||hir head hurts||that is hirs||ze feeds hirself|
|per||per laughed||I kissed per||per / pers head hurts||that is pers||per feeds perself|
|co||co laughed||I kissed co||co’s head hurts||that is co’s||co feeds coself|
|thon||thon laughed||I kissed thon||thons head hurts||that is thon's||thon feeds thonself|
|"heorshe"||heorshe laughed||I kissed himorher||hisorher head hurts||heorshe feeds himorherself|
- ^ "Transgender" pronouns coined by Christine M. Elverson of Skokie, Illinois, to win a contest in 1975. (Black, Judie, "Ey has a word for it", Chicago Tribune, 1975-08-23, p. 12.). Promoted as preferable to other major contenders (sie, zie and singular they) by John Williams's Gender-neutral Pronoun FAQ (2004).
- ^ Popularized by LambdaMOO in 1991, based on the use of E, Ey, and Eir in The Joy of TeX by Michael Spivak (1983).
- ^ Used in science fiction like Peter David's Star Trek: New Frontier book series.
- ^ First recorded use on Usenet: 1981-05-26, Chip Hitchcock, “receptors”, fa.sf-lovers, retrieved on 2007-01-01,
- ^ Example:
1997 December 18, Kate Bornstein, My Gender Workbook: How to Become a Real Man, a Real Woman, the Real You, or Something Else Entirely, London, New York: Routledge, LCC HQ1075.B69 1998, ISBN 9780415916738, LCCN 98134184:
- ^ MediaMOO's "person" gender, derived from Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time (1979), in which people of 2137 use "per" as their sole third-person pronoun.
- ^ Coined by feminist writer Mary Orovan in 1970; in common usage in intentional communities of the Federation of Egalitarian Communities.Baron, Dennis, "The Epicene Pronouns", URL accessed on 2010-06-22.
Kingdon, Jim, "Gender-free Pronouns in English", URL accessed on 2010-06-22.
- ^ "Skyhouse Community – Bylaws", URL accessed on 2010-06-22.
"Bylaws – Sandhill – 1982", URL accessed on 2010-06-22.
"Bylaws – East Wind – 1974", URL accessed on 2010-06-22.
"Bylaws – Twin Oaks", URL accessed on 2010-06-22.
- ^ proposed in 1884 July 23, C. C. Converse, “A New Pronoun”, The Critic and Good Literature, number 31, page 55:
- ^ 1889 November, C. Crozat Converse, “That Desired Impersonal Pronoun”, The Writer, volume 3, number 2, pages 247-248: