kidney

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English[edit]

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Etymology[edit]

From Middle English kednei, kidenei, from earlier kidnēre, kidenēre (kidney). Of obscure origin and formation. Probably a compound consisting of Middle English *kid, *quid (belly, womb), from Old English cwiþ, cwiþa (belly, womb, stomach) + Middle English nēre (kidney), from Old English *nēora (kidney), from Proto-Germanic *neurô (kidney), from Proto-Indo-European *negʷh-r- (kidney). If so, then related to Scots nere, neir (kidney), Dutch nier (kidney), German Niere (kidney), Danish nyre (kidney), Swedish njure (kidney).

Alternate etymology traces the first element to Old English cēod, codd (sack, scrotum), from Proto-Germanic *keudō (sack) as the terms for testicle and kidney were often interchangeable in Germanic (compare Old High German nioro (kidney", also "testicle), Old Swedish vig-niauri (testicle). More at codpiece.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kidney (plural kidneys)

  1. An organ in the body that filters the blood, producing urine.
    • 2013 June 1, “A better waterworks”, The Economist, volume 407, number 8838, page 5 (Technology Quarterly): 
      An artificial kidney these days still means a refrigerator-sized dialysis machine. Such devices mimic the way real kidneys cleanse blood and eject impurities and surplus water as urine.
  2. This organ (of an animal) cooked as food.
  3. (figuratively) Constitution, temperament, nature.
    • L'Estrange
      millions in the world of this man's kidney
    • Burns
      Your poets, spendthrifts, and other fools of that kidney, pretend, forsooth, to crack their jokes on prudence.
    • 1920, T.S. Eliot, A Cooking Egg[1]:
      I shall not want Honour in Heaven
        For I shall meet Sir Philip Sidney
      And have talk with Coriolanus
        And other heroes of that kidney.
  4. (obsolete, slang) A waiter.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Tatler to this entry?)

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