nones

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

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From Latin nonus (ninth).

As a day of the Roman calendar, via nonae (ninth days)[1] from the original Roman practice of counting forward to the next full or new crescent moon, the nones' occurrence 8 days before the ides of every month (9 counting inclusively)[2] following the establishment of a fixed calendar, and from the Latin practice of treating most recurring calendrical days as plurals.[3][4] Some scholars believe the name is a variant of the nundines (nūndinae fēriae, "ninth-day festival"), the Roman market days held every eight days (9 counting inclusively), which were likely announced for each coming month by the Roman kings on the first-quarter days.[5]

As a time of day, via the plural form of Middle English, Anglo-Norman, & French none and Latin nona (ninth hour) after the manner of earlier matins, vespers, etc.[6] As a meal, from the time of day, whether from its plural, genitive, or the occasional adverbial sense of -s.[7]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

nones (plural nones)

  1. (historical, often capitalized) The notional first-quarter day of a Roman month, occurring on the 7th day of the four original 31-day months (March, May, Quintilis or July, and October) and on the 5th day of all other months.
    • 10th century, Byrhtferð of Ramsey, Enchiridion (Ashmolean MS 328), Book I, Chapter ii, Section 22:
      Þa monðas þe habbað iiii nonas æfter kalendas... habbað to idus xiii dagas and to ii kalendas eahtatyne.
      Those months that have 4 nones after the kalends... have 13 days to the ides and eighteen to the second kalends.
    • 14th century, John Trevisa trans. Bartholomaeus Anglicus's De Proprietatibus Rerum, folio 119:
      Þe caniculer dayes biginnyth in þe fiftenþe kalendis of august and endiþ in þe nonis of septembris, and so þey ben euene fifty as it is seide þere.
      The canicular days begin on the fifteenth kalends of August [i.e., July 18th] and end on the nones [i.e., 5th] of September, and so they are even fifty as it is said there.
    • 1679, J. Moxon, Mathematics made Easie, p. 26:
      The Roman Month its several days divides
      By reckoning backwards, Calends, Nones, and Ides.
    • 2011, Robert A. Kaster trans. Macrobius, Saturnalia, Book I, Chapter xiii, Section 18:
      As for the Nones, it was thought that the multitudes should avoid mass meetings then because after the kings were expelled, the Roman people particularly celebrated what they took to be Servius Tullius's birthday: because crowds notoriously thronged all the Nones—it being well-known that Servius was born on the Nones, though the exact month was uncertain—those in charge of the calendar were afraid that if the whole population gathered on a market day it might start to revolt out of yearning for the king, and so they took the precaution of keeping the Nones and market days distinct.
    • 2011, Robert A. Kaster trans. Macrobius, Saturnalia, Book I, Chapter xiv, Section 8:
      [March, May, Quintilis, and October] also have their Nones on the seventh, as Numa ordained, because Julius changed nothing about them. As for January, Sextilis, and December, they still have their Nones on the fifth, though they began to have thirty-one days after Caesar added two days to each, and it is nineteen days from their Ides to the following Kalends, because in adding the two days Caesar did not want to insert them before either the Nones or the Ides, lest an unprecedented postponement mar religious observance associated with the Nones or Ides themselves, which have a fixed date.
    • 2015, Agnes Kirsopp Michels, Calendar of the Roman Republic, p. 21:
      The interesting thing about these ceremonies is that they must have originated in a period when the Romans were using true lunar months based on the observation of the crescent moon. The Kalends then would have been the day after the evening on which the crescent had been first sighted, the Nones would have been the first day when the moon was at the first quarter... In the calendar of the late Republic the lunar months have disappeared and the days have been fixed into a rigid pattern.
    The third day before the nones of March is March 5th; the third nones of August is August 3rd; and the third of the nones of November is November 3rd.
  2. (historical, sometimes capitalized) The ninth hour after dawn (about 3 pm).
    • 1709, John Johnson, The Clergy-Man's Vade Mecum, Pt. II, p. 101:
      ...the same Liturgy of prayers be used both at Nones and Vespers.
      [With the note:] Nones was what we call three o'clock in the afternoon.
    • 1805, Robert Southey, Madoc, Vol. I, xiii, 134:
      From noon till nones
      The brethren sate.
  3. (Christian) The divine office appointed to the hour.
    The Greek monks always listen to their reader recite Psalms 83, 84, and 85 from the Septuagint at nones.
  4. (obsolete) Alternative form of noon: the sixth hour after dawn; midday (12 pm).
  5. (obsolete) Synonym of lunch: a meal eaten around noon.
Usage notes[edit]

English use of the Roman calendrical term always employs the Romans' inclusive dating, including the nones itself when counting. Thus, the "third day before the nones of March" (a.d. iii Non. Mart.) is March 5th: two days before March 7th, not three.

English usage also often follows the Latin contraction of the phrasing, which omits the words ante diem. March 5th may appear as the "third nones of March" or the "third of the nones of March". Thus, the "second nones" (pridie nonas) is the 6th day of the old long months and the 4th day of the other months; the "third nones" (tertia nonas) is the day before that; and the "fourth nones" is the day before that. The day before the fourth nones of the old short months is their calends, whereas the four old long months have a "fifth" and "sixth nones" as well.

Synonyms[edit]
  • (ninth hour of daylight): none; noon (obsolete)
  • (religious service): none
  • (sixth hour of daylight): See noon
Hypernyms[edit]
Coordinate terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See Nones.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

nones pl

  1. Alternative form of Nones: atheists or those without religious affiliation.
    • 2003, Jacob A. Belzen, Antoon Geels, Mysticism: A Variety of Psychological Perspectives, page 50:
      Both the religiously dis-identified ("nones") and the religiously committed report mystical experiences.
    • 2010, Robert D. Putnam, David E Campbell, American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us, page 591:
      Stable nones, that is, people who report in both years that they have no religious affiliation, are, in fact, much less religious
    • 2013, Michael Corbett, Politics and Religion in the United States:
      we have grouped people into nones (no religion), Jews, Catholics, mainline Protestants, and evangelical protestants.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "nones, n.¹", in the Oxford English Dictionary.
  2. ^ Evans, James, The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy (1998), p. 164.
  3. ^ Kennedy, Benjamin Hall, The Public School Latin Grammar (1879), p. 126.
  4. ^ Michels, Agnes Kirsopp, Calendar of the Roman Republic (2015), p. 19.
  5. ^ Michels, Agnes Kirsopp, Calendar of the Roman Republic (2015), p. 131.
  6. ^ "nones, n.³", in the Oxford English Dictionary.
  7. ^ "†nones, n.²", in the Oxford English Dictionary.

Anagrams[edit]


Old French[edit]

Noun[edit]

nones f pl

  1. nominative plural of none