From Proto-Indo-European *yós, *yéh₂, *yód (“who, which”), from one stem *yo-, thematic derivation of the anaphoric stem *i-, *ey-. Cognates include Sanskrit यद् (yás, yā, yad), Avestan 𐬫𐬋 (yō), and Phrygian ιος (yos). See also οἷος (hoîos), ὅσος (hósos).
- (with noun) his, her, its
- (as substantive, sometimes with article) his, hers
- (in the plural) his or her people, friends, family; his possessions
- ὅς, ἥ, ὅ and ἥ, ὅν ὅς, ἥ, ὅν in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
- Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920), “Part II: Inflection”, in A Greek grammar for colleges, Cambridge: American Book Company, § 338
- William Bedell Stanford (1959) . "Introduction, Grammatical Introduction". Homer: Odyssey I-XII 1 (2nd ed.). Macmillan Education Ltd. p. lxiii.
- Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press