There is no "case system" as in Latin and some other languages. Nouns can have plurals, and when referring to a person, often a job, can have a feminine form.
Nouns don't always agree with the gender of the subject. Un docteur refers to both a male and a female doctor, unless it's someone who possesses a doctorate, this would be une doctoresse. Similarly, victime is always feminine, even when referring to a male subject.
While many feminine forms can be created just be adding an -e, there are more rules:
- Nouns ending in -eur have the feminine form -euse, unless the ending is -ateur when the ending becomes -atrice.
- Less commonly, some feminine forms are created with the suffix -esse.
Proper nouns usually have genders, apart from cities which usually don't. France is feminine for example, and les États-Unis is masculine plural. This does not only apply to countries, but to most proper nouns. La Renault (the car) for example. Proper nouns, including given names and surnames are usually invariable and cannot be pluralized.
- allemand ("German", the language. "German" a person is Allemand)
- anglais (“English language”)
- samedi (“Saturday”)
- février (“February”)
The regular plural of almost all nouns in French is formed by adding an -s to the singular form. Sometimes this is not possible, so the following plural forms are not generally considered irregular.
- However many nouns ending in -al and -ail form the plural with just an -s. These are not usually considered 'irregular':
- Noun-noun combinations take an -s for both nouns
- Verb-noun combinations do not take an -s for either word
Borrowings from foreign languages
- Some Latin words retain their plural nominative plurals. This is much rarer than in English and can come over as old-fashioned:
- Some words borrowed from English retain their original plurals, such as words ending in -man or -woman:
- Some Italian words can have Italian plurals as well:
- As in English, sometimes the original plural noun is used as the singular, then another s is added:
Other irregular plurals
- Some highly irregular plurals include:
- Invariable or invariant nouns are ones that have identical singular and plural forms. The following nouns are invariable because of their meaning or derivation rather than because they end in -s, -x or -z:
- Letters of the alphabet, not limited to the Latin Alphabet:
- But they can be pluralized if with an -s they have a second meaning: des delta (Greek letters) des deltas (river features)
- Proper nouns, usually given names and surnames:
- Musical notes: