bez

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See also: Bez, beż, běž, bež, bez-, and bez.

English

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Etymology 1

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See bezantler.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bez (plural bezes)

  1. The second tine of an antler's beam, the bezantler.
Translations
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Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Verb

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bez

  1. (nonstandard, dialectal) first-person plural simple present of be
    Synonym: (standard) are
    • 2007 October 20, NiggydaHoe, “Re: 79yr old Nigger Idiot was suspended for racist bullshit”, in alt.music.white-power[2] (Usenet):
      We bez run to 'da good bad white man. He gonna fire 'da ova bad white man.
      If 'da bad white man cain't sayz be[sic] niggas bez stupid in 'da heaad, wif' low
      iq an' shit, 'dat mus' mean we bez humans.
  2. (nonstandard, dialectal) third-person plural simple present of be
    Synonym: (standard) are
    • 1860, The Knickerbacker[3], volume 56, Peabody, →LCCN, →OCLC, page 434:
      'They bez goin' like der Tyfel,'
    • 2007 June 13, Mustapha Mond, “Re: Nigger Apologists: Slaves Who Died at Sea Being Honored”, in comp.sys.mac.apps[4] (Usenet):
      >>>>>>> " [] They are not rotting someplace in hell, they bez right
      >>>>>>> here
      >>>>>>> whining wif us."

See also

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Anagrams

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Aragonese

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Etymology

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From Latin vicis. Compare Aragonese vez.

Noun

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bez f (plural bezes)

  1. a time
  2. occasion

References

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Basque

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Noun

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bez

  1. instrumental indefinite of be

Czech

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Czech Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia cs

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈbɛs]
  • Audio:(file)
  • Rhymes: -ɛs

Etymology 1

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Inherited from Old Czech bez, from Proto-Slavic *bъzъ, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeh₂ǵos.

Noun

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bez m inan

  1. elder (bush of genus Sambucus)
Declension
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Derived terms
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adjective
nouns

Etymology 2

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Inherited from Old Czech bez, from Proto-Slavic *bez, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeǵʰs.

Preposition

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bez [+genitive]

  1. without
    Antonym: s

Further reading

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  • bez in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • bez in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
  • bez in Internetová jazyková příručka

Kashubian

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈbɛs/
  • Rhymes: -ɛs
  • Syllabification: bez

Etymology 1

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *bez.

Preposition

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bez [+genitive]

  1. without
Derived terms
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prefix

Etymology 2

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Compare Polish bez and Silesian bez.

Preposition

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bez [+accusative]

  1. through, across

Further reading

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  • Stefan Ramułt (1893) “bez”, in Słownik języka pomorskiego czyli kaszubskiego (in Kashubian), page 6
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011) “bez”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi[5], volume 1, page 73
  • bez”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022

Latgalian

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Etymology

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From Proto-Balto-Slavic *beź. Cognates include Latvian bez and Lithuanian be.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈbʲɛs]
  • Hyphenation: bez

Preposition

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bez (+ genitive)

  1. without
  2. (when telling time) to
    Bez desmit deveni.Ten to nine (8:50).

References

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  • Nicole Nau (2011) A short grammar of Latgalian, München: LINCOM GmbH, →ISBN, page 71

Latvian

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Etymology

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From Proto-Balto-Slavic *beź. Cognates include Latgalian bez and Lithuanian be.

Preposition

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bez (with genitive)

  1. without
  2. in addition to
  3. apart from

Derived terms

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Masurian

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Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈbɛs/
  • Rhymes: -ɛs
  • Syllabification: bez

Etymology 1

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Inherited from Old Polish bez.

Preposition

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bez [+genitive]

  1. without, lacking

Etymology 2

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Inherited from Old Polish bez.

Preposition

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bez [+accusative]

  1. Synonym of prżez

Further reading

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  • Zofia Stamirowska (1987-2024) “II. bez”, in Anna Basara, editor, Słownik gwar Ostródzkiego, Warmii i Mazur[6], volume 1, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, →ISBN, pages 165-167

Old Czech

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *bъzъ.

Noun

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bez m inan

  1. elder (bush of genus Sambucus)
Declension
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Descendants
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  • Czech: bez

Etymology 2

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *bez.

Preposition

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bez [+genitive]

  1. Denotes lack; without
    bez divanormally
    bez číslacountless
    Umřěl bez časa.He died prematurely.
    V ten čas bez města budieše(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Jest juž bez ňeho.He's already dead.
  2. Denotes action carried out against someone's wishes.
  3. Denotes interrupted action.
  4. Determines proximity in amount; nearly
Derived terms
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Descendants
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References

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Old Polish

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /bɛs/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /bɛs/

Etymology 1

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *bъzъ. First attested in the 15th century.

Noun

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bez m animacy unattested

  1. (attested in Greater Poland) elder (bush of genus Sambucus)
Descendants
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Etymology 2

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *bez. First attested in 1418.

Preposition

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bez

  1. (attested in Lesser Poland) without [+genitive]
    • 1939 [end of the 14th century], Ryszard Ganszyniec, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Kubica, Ludwik Bernacki, editors, Psałterz florjański łacińsko-polsko-niemiecki [Sankt Florian Psalter]‎[10], Krakow: Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolińskich, z zasiłkiem Sejmu Śląskiego [The Ossoliński National Institute: with the benefit of the Silesian Parliament], pages 106, 4:
      Zblandzyly sø na pvsczy bez wod (erraverunt in solitudine, in inaquoso)
      [Zbłądzili są na puszczy bez wod (erraverunt in solitudine, in inaquoso)]
  2. (attested in Sieradz, Lesser Poland) contra, against [+genitive]
    • 1897 [1409], Teki Adolfa Pawińskiego[11], volume IV, number 1742, Łęczyca Land:
      Albertus jan mego czloweka... besz prawa
      [Albertus jął mego człowieka... bez prawa]
    • 1901 [1425], Materiały i Prace Komisji Językowej Akademii Umiejętności w Krakowie, volume II, Radom, Sandomierz, Opoczno, page 304:
      Ysze Jan Marczina kmecza *Szvinanywa dzirszal gy w yanczwe... y puszczyl gy bez urzandu szemskyego
      [Iże Jan Marcina kmiecia Świnianiwa dzirżał ji w jeństwie... i puścił ji bez urzędu ziemskiego]
    • 1895 [1425], Archiwum Komisji Prawniczej. Collectanea ex Archivo Collegii Iuridici[12], volume VIIIa, page 166:
      Helwig ne poslal trzidzeszanth woszow do laszu Oppatowa besz yego woley
      [Helwig nie posłał trzydziesiąt wozow do lasu opatowa bez jego wolej]
    • 1884 [c. 1455-1460], “Die Magdeburger Urtheile. Ein Deutschen Rechtes in polnischer Sprache aus der Mitte des XV Jahrhunderts”, in Aleksander Brückner, editor, Archiv für slavische Philologie, volume VII, page 564:
      Besz gych dzyaky an eren wyllen
      [Bez jich dzięki an eren wyllen]
  3. (attested in Greater Poland) besides, except [+genitive]
    • 1858 [c. 1408], Wojciech Szurkowski z Ponieca, “Wyroki sądów miejskich czyli ortyle [Urban court rulings i.e. "Ortyls"]”, in Wacław Aleksander Maciejowski, editor, Historia prawodawstw słowiańskich [History of Slavic lawmaking], volume 6, Poniec, page 129:
      Mogaly przyszyasznyczy myecz oszobnego pyszarza besz raczkyego, szlowye myesczkyego pyszarza?
      [Mogąli przysiężnicy mieć osobnego pisarza bez radzkiego, słowie miesckiego pisarza?]
  4. before [+genitive]
    • 1886 [c. 1455-1460], Emil Kałużniacki, editor, Die polnische Recension der Magdeburger Urtheile und die einschlägigen deutschen, lateinischen und czechischen Sammlungen, page 185:
      Przyszaszely ku przysząstwu besz wyrzeczonego czassv, ten nye moze szye szam szandzycz przez przysząstwa przesz swe obesczye
      [Przysiężeli ku przysięstwu bez wyrzeczonego czasu, ten nie może sie sam zsadzić [prze]z przysięstwa przez swe obeście]
Alternative forms
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Derived terms
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prefix
Descendants
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Etymology 3

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From bez, due to confusion with the rhyming preposition przez. The two words were and are used interchangeably in various dialects, and in Old Polish przez was about to replace bez around the 14th-15th century. In the written language the earlier distinction ultimately prevailed, however.[1] First attested in c. 1512.

Preposition

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bez

  1. through, by [+accusative]
    • Middle of the 15th century, Rozmyślanie o żywocie Pana Jezusa[13], page 103:
      Bez chytrość (per astutiam) Antypatrową lepak synowie Herodowi... byli podeźrani ojcu
      [Bez chytrość (per astutiam) Antypatrowę lepak synowie Herodowi... byli podeźrani ojcu]
Descendants
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References

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  1. ^ Brückner, Aleksander (1927) “bez”, in Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego [Etymological Dictionary of the Polish Language] (in Polish), Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna, page 21

Polish

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Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Inherited from Old Polish bez.

Noun

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bez m inan

  1. elder (bush of genus Sambucus)
  2. lilac (bush of genus Syringa)
    Synonym: lilak
    pachnieć bzemto smell of lilac
Declension
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Derived terms
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nouns

Etymology 2

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Inherited from Old Polish bez.

Preposition

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bez [+genitive]

  1. without, lacking
    Antonym: z
    Proszę o kawę bez mleka.A coffee with no milk, please.
  2. (Middle Polish) minus, less
  3. (Middle Polish) contra, against
  4. (Middle Polish) besides, except
  5. (Middle Polish) without; Further details are uncertain.
    • 1532, Bartłomiej z Bydgoszczy, Słownik łacińsko-polski[14], page 116b:
      extra placitum, besz voley, nad volyą
      [extra placitum, bez wolej, nad wolą]
Alternative forms
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Derived terms
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prefix

Trivia

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According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), bez is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 70 times in scientific texts, 52 times in news, 89 times in essays, 129 times in fiction, and 119 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 459 times, making it the 99th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

Etymology 3

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Inherited from Old Polish bez.

Preposition

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bez [+accusative]

  1. (Poznań) because of
    Synonym: z powodu
  2. (dialectal) across, through
    Synonym: przez
    • 2000, Aneta Majkowska, Polszczyzna mówiona mieszkańców Częstochowy, page 185:
      Nie tu szosą tylko drogą polną bez pola my jechali z chłopem sąsiadki.
      We drove through the fields with the neighbor's man, not on the paved road, but on a dirt road.

Etymology 4

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See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Noun

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bez f

  1. genitive plural of beza

References

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  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990) “bez”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language]‎[1] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków, Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 21

Further reading

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  • bez in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • bez in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “bez”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  • Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “bez, beze, biez”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  • BEZ”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 2016 November 9
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814) “bez”, in Słownik języka polskiego[15]
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861) “bez”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861[16]
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1900), “bez”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 1, Warsaw, page 119

Romanian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Old Church Slavonic без (bez), from Proto-Slavic *bez.

Adverb

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bez

  1. (dated) without

Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology 1

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *bez. Compare bez- and bes-.

Alternative forms

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Preposition

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bèz (Cyrillic spelling бѐз) (+ genitive case)

  1. without, excluding, not counting
    bez sumnjewithout a doubt
    ostati bez nečegato lose something, to run out of something, (literally: to stay without something)
    bez obzira na..regardless of.., no matter what..is
    bez kraja i koncaendlessly, without end
    ne bez razloganot without a reason
    bez srcaheartlessly, without a heart
    bez r(ij)ečiwithout a word, speechless
    biti bez nečegato be lacking in, to be deficient in, to lack (literally: to be without something)
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Etymology 2

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Borrowed from Ottoman Turkish بز (bez), from Arabic بَزّ (bazz). Akin to bezistan, bezli, besofra and bespara.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bȅz m (Cyrillic spelling бе̏з)

  1. linen, canvas
  2. (specifically) a type of cotton-made linen or canvas used in Oriental costumes, of several possible forms: ćereće, sedeluk, kafez or kafez-bez, melez, harir, šejtanbez and harirbez.
Declension
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References

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  • bez” in Hrvatski jezični portal
  • bez” in Hrvatski jezični portal
  • Škaljić, Abdulah (1966) Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku, Sarajevo: Svjetlost, page 140

Silesian

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Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Inherited from Old Polish bez.

Preposition

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bez [+genitive]

  1. without
Derived terms
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prefix

Etymology 2

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Inherited from Old Polish bez.

Preposition

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bez [+accusative]

  1. Alternative form of przez

Further reading

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  • bez in dykcjonorz.eu
  • bez in silling.org

Slovak

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *bez.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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bez (+ genitive)

  1. without
    Antonyms: s, so

Further reading

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  • bez”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Tatar

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Noun

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bez

  1. awl

Turkish

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Etymology 1

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From Ottoman Turkish بز (bez); see there for more. The ultimate origin is Arabic بَزّ (bazz), however, an influence from Byzantine Greek βύσσος (bússos) has been postulated in order to explain the mismatch in the vowels.[1]

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈbez/
  • Hyphenation: bez

Noun

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bez (definite accusative bezi, plural bezler)

  1. cloth
Declension
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Inflection
Nominative bez
Definite accusative bezi
Singular Plural
Nominative bez bezler
Definite accusative bezi bezleri
Dative beze bezlere
Locative bezde bezlerde
Ablative bezden bezlerden
Genitive bezin bezlerin

Etymology 2

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From Ottoman Turkish بز (bez), from Proto-Turkic *beŕ.

Cognate with Kazakh без (bez, gland), Karachay-Balkar без (bez, gland), Southern Altai бес (bes, gland), Uzbek bez (gland), Uyghur بەز (bez, gland), Turkmen mäz (gland), Bashkir биҙ (biź, gland), Tuvan бес (bes, gland), Chuvash пар (par, gland).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈbez/
  • Hyphenation: bez

Noun

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bez (definite accusative bezi, plural bezler)

  1. (anatomy) gland
Declension
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Inflection
Nominative bez
Definite accusative bezi
Singular Plural
Nominative bez bezler
Definite accusative bezi bezleri
Dative beze bezlere
Locative bezde bezlerde
Ablative bezden bezlerden
Genitive bezin bezlerin

References

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  1. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2018) “Fabrication of Turkic böz 'fabric' in Japan and Korea”, in Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, volume 71, number 3, Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, pages 263–284.