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See also:
U+589E, 增
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-589E

[U+589D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+589F]

Translingual[edit]

Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(radical 32 +12, 15 strokes, cangjie input 土金田日 (GCWA), four-corner 48166, composition)

Related characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 238, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5454
  • Dae Jaweon: page 477, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 489, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+589E

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
增-oracle.svg 增-bronze.svg 增-silk.svg 增-slip.svg 增-seal.svg 增-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsrɯn
*ʔsɯːŋ, *zɯŋ
*ʔsɯːŋ, *ʔsɯːŋs
*ʔsɯːŋ
*ʔsɯːŋ, *zɯŋ
*ʔsɯːŋ, *zɯːŋ
*ʔsɯːŋ
*ʔsɯːŋ
*ʔsɯːŋ
*ʔsɯːŋ, *zɯŋ
*ʔsɯːŋ, *zɯŋ
*ʔsɯːŋ
*sʰɯːŋs
*zɯːŋ
*zɯːŋs
*sɯːŋ
*sɯːŋ
*ʔsɯŋs
*zɯŋ
*zɯŋ
*zɯŋ
*sʰɯːŋ
*zrɯːŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsɯːŋ, *ʔsɯːŋs): semantic  (earth) + phonetic  (OC *ʔsɯːŋ, *zɯːŋ) – things grow in the earth, to build from earth.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡səŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡səŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡səŋ²¹/
Jinan /t͡səŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡səŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡səŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡səŋ²¹/
Xining /t͡sə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡səŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡sə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡sɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡sən⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡sən⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡sen⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡sə̃/
Nanjing /t͡sən³¹/
Hefei /t͡sən²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡səŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡səŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ʈ͡ʂəŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡sən⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡sen³³/
Wenzhou /t͡saŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /t͡sɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡sən³³/
Xiangtan /t͡sən³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sɛn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sen⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /t͡sen²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɐŋ⁵³/
Nanning /t͡sɐŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡sɐŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡siŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɛiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡saiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡seŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡seŋ³³/
/t͡sɔŋ³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (13) (13)
Final () (129) (129)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Li
Rong
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Wang
Li
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zēng zèng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsong ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-tˤəŋ/
English increase

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 16613 16623
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsɯːŋ/ /*ʔsɯːŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to increase; to expand
  2. to gain; to add
  3. 13th tetragram of the Taixuanjing

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. increase
  2. add to
  3. augment

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(jeung) (hangeul , revised jeung, McCune-Reischauer chŭng)

  1. increase
  2. add to
  3. augment

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tăng, tâng)

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