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Translingual[edit]

Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsɯːŋ, *ʔsɯːŋs): semantic  ‎(earth) + phonetic  ‎(OC *ʔsɯːŋ, *zɯːŋ) – things grow in the earth, to build from earth.

Han character[edit]

(radical 32 +12, 15 strokes, cangjie input 土金田日 (GCWA), four-corner 48166, composition)

  1. increase, gain, add
  2. detest
  3. extend
  4. exaggerate

Related characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 238, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5454
  • Dae Jaweon: page 477, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 489, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+589E

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
增-oracle.svg 增-bronze.svg 增-bigseal.svg 增-seal.svg

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡səŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡səŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡səŋ²¹/
Jinan /t͡səŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡səŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡səŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡səŋ²¹/
Xining /t͡sə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡səŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡sə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡sɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡sən⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡sən⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡sen⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡sə̃/
Nanjing /t͡sən³¹/
Hefei /t͡sən²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡səŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡səŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ʈ͡ʂəŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡sən⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡sen³³/
Wenzhou /t͡saŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /t͡sɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡sən³³/
Xiangtan /t͡sən³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sɛn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sen⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /t͡sen²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɐŋ⁵³/
Nanning /t͡sɐŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡sɐŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡siŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɛiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡saiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡seŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡seŋ³³/
/t͡sɔŋ³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (13) (13)
Final () (129) (129)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Li
Rong
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Wang
Li
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡səŋ/ /t͡səŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zēng zèng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsong ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-tˤəŋ/
English increase

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 16613 16623
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsɯːŋ/ /*ʔsɯːŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. increase
  2. add to
  3. augment

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jeung) (hangeul , revised jeung, McCune-Reischauer chŭng)

  1. increase
  2. add to
  3. augment

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tăng, tâng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.